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As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on April 20th, 2022.
Registration No. 333- 261496
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
Post-Effective Amendment No. 1 to
FORM
S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 
 
SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
2836
 
85-3899721
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2100 East 54th Street North
Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104
Telephone:
605-679-6980
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 
Eddie J. Sullivan, PhD
President and Chief Executive Officer
SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc.
2100 East 54th Street North
Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104
Telephone:
605-679-6980
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
 
Copies to:
Brian Lee, Esq.
Ilan Katz, Esq.
Dentons US LLP
1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020
(212)
768-6700
(212)
768-6800
— Facsimile
 
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.    ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
       
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
       
         Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
This Post-Effective Amendment No. 1 (this “Post-Effective Amendment No. 1”) to the Registration Statement on Form
S-1
(Registration
No. 333-261496)
(the “Registration Statement”), as originally declared effective by the SEC on December 15, 2021, is being filed to include information contained in the registrant’s Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, which was filed with the SEC on March 29, 2022, and to update certain other information in the Registration Statement.
The information included in this filing amends the Registration Statement and the prospectus contained therein. No additional securities are being registered under this Post-Effective Amendment No. 1. All applicable registration fees were paid at the time of the original filing of the Registration Statement on December 3, 2021.
 
 
 

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
Subject to Completion, Dated April 20th, 2022
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
 
LOGO
Up to 14,434,301 Shares of Common Stock
Up to 5,958,600 Shares of Common Stock Issuable Upon Exercise of Warrants
 
 
This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of an aggregate of up to 5,958,600 shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), which consists of (i) the issuance of up to 208,600 shares of Common Stock upon exercise of 208,600 warrants issued in a private placement to Big Cypress Holdings LLC (the “Sponsor”), in connection with the initial public offering of Big Cypress Acquisition Corp. (the “Private Placement Warrants”), and (ii) the issuance of up to 5,750,000 shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of 5,750,000 warrants issued in the initial public offering of Big Cypress Acquisition Corp. (the “Public Warrants,” and, together with the Private Placement Warrants, the “Warrants”). We will receive the proceeds from the exercise of any Warrants for cash.
This prospectus also relates to the offer and sale from time to time of up to 14,434,301 shares of Common Stock by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus or their permitted transferees (the “selling securityholders”), which consists of (i) 3,047,825 shares issued in a private placement to the Sponsor pursuant to the Securities Subscription Agreement, dated November 12, 2020, (ii) 10,685,978 shares issued to Christine Hamilton, Director of SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc. (the “Company”), (iii) 244,373 shares issued to Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. (“Ladenburg”) and certain of its employees, and (iv) 247,525 shares issued to Chardan Capital Markets LLC (“Chardan”) and certain of its employees and designees. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus. We are registering the securities held by the selling securityholders for resale pursuant to that certain amended and restated registration rights agreement dated October 23, 2021 between us and the selling securityholders.
Our registration of the securities covered by this prospectus does not mean that the selling securityholders will offer or sell any of the shares of Common Stock. The selling securityholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales of the shares of Common Stock, except with respect to amounts received by us upon exercise of the Warrants. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The selling securityholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of shares of Common Stock. See the section titled “
Plan of Distribution.
The Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) under the symbols “SABS” and “SABSW”, respectively. On April 18th, 2022, the last reported sales price of Common Stock was $2.61 per share and the last reported sales price of our Public Warrants was $0.30 per warrant.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with reduced public company reporting requirements. This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company. We are incorporated in Delaware.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described in the section titled “
” beginning on page 15 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in any amendments or supplements to this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Prospectus dated                     , 2022

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You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any supplement to this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Neither we nor the selling securityholders have authorized anyone to provide you with additional information or information different from that contained in this prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We and the selling securityholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. The selling securityholders are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor the selling securityholders, have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.
To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in a document incorporated by reference is inconsistent with a statement in another document incorporated by reference having a later date, the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
 
1

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form
S-1
that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the selling securityholders may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such selling securityholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. This prospectus also relates to the issuance by us of the shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of any Warrants. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants pursuant to this prospectus, except with respect to amounts received by us upon the exercise of the Warrants for cash.
Neither we nor the selling securityholders have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the selling securityholders take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the selling securityholders will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the sections of this prospectus titled “
Where You Can Find More Information.
On October 22, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), Big Cypress Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation and our predecessor company (“BCYP”), consummated the previously announced business combination (the “Business Combination”), pursuant to the terms of the agreement and plan of merger, dated as of June 21, 2021 and as amended on August 12, 2021 by the first amendment to the agreement and plan of merger (as may be amended, supplemented or otherwise modified from time to time, the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among BCYP, Big Cypress Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of BCYP (“Merger Sub”), and SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Legacy SAB”).
Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, on the Closing Date, (i) Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy SAB (the “Merger”), with Legacy SAB as the surviving company in the Merger, and, after giving effect to such Merger, Legacy SAB was renamed SAB Sciences, Inc. and became a wholly-owned subsidiary of BCYP and (ii) BCYP changed its name to “SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc.” (the “Company” or “SAB” or “SAB Biotherapeutics” f/k/a Big Cypress Acquisition Corp).
In accordance with the terms and subject to the conditions of the Business Combination Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger (the “Effective Time”), (i) each share of common stock and preferred stock of Legacy SAB outstanding as of immediately prior to the Effective Time was exchanged for shares of our Common Stock based on the agreed upon Legacy SAB equity value of $300 million (the “Equity Value”) and a conversion rate of $10.10; (ii) each outstanding vested and unvested option to purchase shares of Legacy SAB common stock was exchanged for a comparable option to purchase our Common Stock, based on the Equity Value and a conversion rate of $10.10; and (iii) holders of vested options to purchase shares of Legacy SAB common stock received, in the aggregate, 1,507,124 restricted stock units (the “Earnout RSUs”) related to shares of our Common Stock. Additionally, holders of Legacy SAB common stock and preferred stock are entitled to receive their pro rata share of the shares of our Common Stock that were issued into escrow at the Closing (the “Earnout Shares”) which will be released if certain conditions are met within the five-year period following the Closing (the “Earnout Period”). The total number of Earnout Shares and shares underlying the Earnout RSUs equaled 12,000,000 shares of Common Stock, in the aggregate.
 
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No fraction of a share of Common Stock was issued at the Closing, and each person who was otherwise entitled to a fraction of a share of Common Stock (after aggregating all fractional shares of Common Stock that otherwise would be received by such holder) received the number of shares of Common Stock rounded in the aggregate to the nearest whole share of Common Stock.
Unless the context otherwise requires, “NEW SAB,” “SAB,” “SAB Biotherapeutics,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” refer to SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc. (f/k/a Big Cypress Acquisition Corp.), a Delaware corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. All references to “BCYP” refer to the predecessor company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination. All references to “Legacy SAB” refer to SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation acquired by Merger Sub to effect the Business Combination and the Merger. All references herein to the “Board” refer to the board of directors of the Company (the “Board”). All references herein to the “Closing” refer to the closing of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, including the Merger and the Business Combination (collectively, the “Transactions”).
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Some of the statements contained in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements relate to expectations, beliefs, projections, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements include statements about future financial and operating results of the Company; benefits of the Business Combination; statements about the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations of the Company; statements regarding future performance; and other statements regarding the Business Combination. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “outlook,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strive,” “target,” “will,” “would” and the negative version of these words or other comparable words or phrases, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus, and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements in this prospectus and in any document incorporated herein by reference should not be relied upon as representing the Company’s views as of any subsequent date, and the Company does not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, the Company’s actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:
 
   
the ability to maintain the Company’s listing of Common Stock on Nasdaq;
 
   
the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination;
 
   
costs associated with the Business Combination;
 
   
general economic conditions and their impact on demand for the Company’s platform;
 
   
seasonal sales fluctuations;
 
   
the outcome of any known and unknown litigation and regulatory proceedings;
 
   
the Company is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company and has incurred significant losses since its inception. The Company realized net loss in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, it may incur losses for the foreseeable future and may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to maintain profitability;
 
   
the Company’s limited operating history makes future forecasting difficult;
 
   
the Company’s product candidates are in preclinical or early-stage clinical development;
 
   
the future commercial success of the Company’s product candidates will depend on the degree of market acceptance of the Company’s potential products among physicians, patients, healthcare payers, and the medical community;
 
   
failure to successfully identify, develop and commercialize additional products or product candidates could impair the Company’s ability to grow;
 
   
the Company depends upon its senior management and senior scientific staff, and their loss or unavailability could put the Company at a competitive disadvantage;
 
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the Company is subject to manufacturing risks that could substantially increase the costs and limit supply of product candidates or prevent the Company from achieving a commercially viable production process;
 
   
outbreaks of livestock diseases and other events affecting the health of the Company’s bovine herd can adversely impact the Company’s ability to conduct its operations and production of its product candidates; and
 
   
the Company is subject to stringent environmental regulation and potentially subject to environmental litigation, proceedings, and investigations.
The foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this registration statement.
In addition, statements that “SAB believes” or “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and such statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. Except to the extent required by applicable law, we are under no obligation (and expressly disclaim any such obligation) to update or revise their forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could cause our future results, performance or transactions to differ significantly from those expressed in any forward-looking statement, please see the section titled “
Risk Factors
.” You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to us (or to third parties making the forward-looking statements).
 
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FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
“Amendment No. 1 to Business Combination Agreement” means the amendment to the Business Combination Agreement dated as of August 12, 2021 by and among BCYP, Merger Sub, SAB Biotherapeutics.
“Board” means the Board of Directors of the Company.
“Business Combination” means the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.
“Business Combination Agreement” means the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of June 21, 2021 and as amended by Amendment No. 1 to Business Combination Agreement, as may be amended, by and among BCYP, Merger Sub and SAB Biotherapeutics.
“BCYP” refers to Big Cypress Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation, prior to the completion of the Business Combination on October 22, 2021.
“BCYP Common Stock” means BCYP’s Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
“BCYP IPO” or “IPO” means BCYP’s initial public offering of units, consummated on January 14, 2021.
“BCYP Public Stockholders” means the former holders of shares of BCYP Common Stock.
“Closing” means the consummation of the Business Combination.
“Closing Date” means the date upon which the Closing occurred.
“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
“DGCL” means the Delaware General Corporation Law.
“Equity Value” means the equity value of Legacy SAB, which was agreed upon to be $300 million.
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
“Effective Time” means the time at which the Merger became effective.
“Founder Shares” means the 2,875,000 shares of BCYP Common Stock issued to the Initial Stockholders prior to the BCYP IPO.
“GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.
“Initial Stockholders” means the Sponsor, Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. and certain of its employees, who collectively hold all of the Founder Shares.
“JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended.
“Legacy SAB” means the entity formerly known as SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc. a Delaware corporation, which was renamed SAB Sciences, Inc.
“Merger” means the merging of Merger Sub with and into Legacy SAB, with Legacy SAB surviving the Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of BCYP.
“Merger Sub” means Big Cypress Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation.
 
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“Nasdaq” means The Nasdaq Stock Market.
“Nasdaq Global Market” means the Global Market tier of The Nasdaq Stock Market.
“PCAOB” means the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.
“Private Placement Warrants” means the warrants included in the private placement of BCYP’s units, each such whole warrant is exercisable for one share of Common Stock, in accordance with its terms.
“Public Warrants” means the warrants included in the units sold in BCYP’s IPO, each of which is exercisable for one share of Common Stock, in accordance with its terms.
“SAB” or the “Company” refers to BCYP after completion of the Business Combination on October 22, 2021.
“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
“Sponsor” means Big Cypress Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.
“Warrants” means the Private Placement Warrants and the Public Warrants.
 
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto and the information set forth in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of powerful and proprietary immunotherapeutic polyclonal human antibodies to treat and prevent infectious diseases and immune an autoimmune disorders, including infectious diseases resulting from outbreaks and pandemics such as the
COVID-19
pandemic and respiratory diseases that have a more significant impact on the immune compromised population. Using private resources and more than $200 million of funds awarded from the U.S. Government emerging disease and medical countermeasures programs since September 2019, we have developed a novel drug development platform, that we refer to as our DiversitAb platform. This platform is based on the power of the human immune system and has the unique capability to generate large quantities of specifically targeted, high-potency, fully-human natural polyclonal antibodies without the need for convalescent plasma or human donors. Over a span of two decades, our founding scientists have refined, optimized, and advanced genetic engineering and antibody science to develop transchromosomic cattle (which we refer to as Tc Bovine) that produce fully-human antibodies. These Tc Bovine form a key component of our versatile DiversitAb platform.
We are leveraging our DiversitAb platform to discover and develop product candidates with the potential to be
first-in-class
against novel targets or
best-in-class
against known, complex targets that treat diseases with significant unmet medical needs, including infectious and respiratory diseases, immune and autoimmune disorders, and oncology.
We have focused our efforts on developing its product and platform value chain. Since our founding in 2014, we have generated revenue from government awards and commercial agreements that have provided
proof-of-concept
and consistency of outcomes across more than a dozen development programs. In addition, we have generated substantial results from government, academic and commercial collaborators, including testing, process development and optimization, nonclinical and clinical studies for multiple, distinct product candidates in infectious disease, oncology and immune disorders.
The mailing address of our principal executive offices are located at 2100 East 54th Street North, Sioux Falls, SD 57104, and our telephone number is (605)
679-6800.
Background
BCYP was a blank check special purpose acquisition company formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses.
The registration statement for the BCYP IPO was declared effective by the SEC on January 11, 2021 and on January 14, 2021, BCYP consummated the BCYP IPO, which consisted of the initial public offering of 11,500,000 units, which included the full exercise by the underwriters of the over-allotment option to purchase an additional 1,500,000 units, at $10.00 per unit, generating gross proceeds of $115,000,000. Each unit consisted of one share of common stock, and
one-half
redeemable warrant to purchase one share of common stock at a price of $11.50 per whole share. Simultaneously with the closing of the BCYP IPO, BCYP consummated the sale of
 
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417,200 Private Placement Units, at a price of $10.00 per unit, in a private placement to our Sponsor, generating gross proceeds of $4,172,000.
Following the BCYP IPO and the sale of the Private Placement Warrants, a total of $116,150,000 was placed in the Trust Account. In accordance with BCYP’s then-current Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the amounts held in the Trust Account could only be used by BCYP upon the consummation of a business combination, other than any interest earned on the funds in the Trust Account, to be released by BCYP from time to time, to pay its tax obligations.
BCYP, Merger Sub and Legacy SAB consummated the Business Combination on the Closing Date pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement.
Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, on the Closing Date, (i) the parties to the Business Combination Agreement consummated the Merger, and, after giving effect to such Merger, Legacy SAB was renamed SAB Sciences, Inc. and became a wholly-owned subsidiary of BCYP and (ii) BCYP changed its name to “SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc.” (f/k/a Big Cypress Acquisition Corp).
In accordance with the terms and subject to the conditions of the Business Combination Agreement, at the Effective Time, (i) each share of common stock and preferred stock of Legacy SAB outstanding as of immediately prior to the Effective Time was exchanged for shares of Common Stock based on the Equity Value and a conversion rate of $10.10; (ii) each outstanding vested and unvested option to purchase shares of Legacy SAB common stock was exchanged for a comparable option to purchase Common Stock, based on the Equity Value and a conversion rate of $10.10; and (iii) holders of vested options to purchase shares of Legacy SAB common stock received, in the aggregate, 1,507,124 restricted stock units (the “Earnout RSUs”) related to shares of Common Stock. Additionally, holders of Legacy SAB common stock and preferred stock are entitled to receive their pro rata share of the shares of Common Stock that were issued into escrow at the Closing (the “Earnout Shares”) which will be released if certain conditions are met within the five-year period following the Closing (the “Earnout Period”). The total number of Earnout Shares and shares underlying the Earnout RSUs equaled 12,000,000 shares of Common Stock, in the aggregate.
No fraction of a share of Common Stock was issued at the Closing, and each person who was otherwise entitled to a fraction of a share of Common Stock (after aggregating all fractional shares of Common Stock that otherwise would be received by such holder) received the number of shares of Common Stock rounded in the aggregate to the nearest whole share of Common Stock.
The following terms shall have the respective meanings ascribed to them below:
“Earnout Escrow Account” means the escrow account pursuant to the Earnout Escrow Agreement to hold the Earnout Shares until they are released to the former holders of Legacy SAB Common Stock and Preferred Stock or returned to the Company to be held as treasury shares.
“Earnout Escrow Agreement” means the Escrow Agreement entered into Closing, by and among BCYP, Shareholder Representative Services LLC, as the stockholder representative, and Continental Stock Transfer and Trust Company.
“Earnout Period” means the five-year period following the Closing.
“Earnout RSUs” means the restricted stock units issued to holders of vested options to purchase shares of Legacy SAB common stock as contemplated in the Business Combination Agreement. Each Earnout RSU will be settled in shares of Common Stock issued to holders of vested options to purchase Legacy SAB common stock subject to certain condition as contemplated in the Business Combination Agreement.
 
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“Earnout Shares” means the shares of Common Stock issued into escrow at the Closing pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement and the Escrow Agreement, which will be returned to the Company and become treasury shares, in whole or in part, if certain conditions are not met within the Earnout Period.
“Trust Account” means the trust account that held a portion of the proceeds of the BCYP IPO and the concurrent sale of the Private Placement Units.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, and therefore we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to have our internal control over financial reporting audited by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus, our periodic reports and our proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which the market value of our Common Stock that is held by
non-affiliates
equals or exceeds $700 million as of the end of that year’s second fiscal quarter, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year (as indexed for inflation), (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in
non-convertible
debt in the prior three-year period or (iv) December 31, 2026.
Summary of Risk Factors
Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all of the risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional discussion of the risks and uncertainties summarized in this risk factor summary, as well as other risks and uncertainties that we face, can be found under the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. The below summary is qualified in its entirety by that more complete discussion of such risks and uncertainties. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the section titled “
Risk Factors
” as part of your evaluation of an investment in our securities:
Risks related to the Company’s business and operations, including that:
 
   
we are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company and have incurred significant losses since our inception. We realized net loss in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, we may incur losses for the foreseeable future and may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to maintain profitability;
 
   
our limited operating history makes future forecasting difficult;
 
   
our product candidates are in preclinical or early-stage clinical development;
 
   
we our highly dependent on the success of our product candidates and if we are unable to successfully complete clinical development, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize one or more of our product candidates, or if we experience delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed;
 
   
the regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed;
 
   
regulatory approval for the genetic modification of animals, including those from which antibodies are isolated for injection into human patients, requires the approval of a New Animal Drug Application, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain such approval, our business will be substantially harmed;
 
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the future commercial success of our product candidates will depend on the degree of market acceptance of our potential products among physicians, patients, healthcare payers, and the medical community;
 
   
we have received awards from the U.S. Government in multiple projects over the course of operations, including but not limited to, Government Purpose Rights, Government Limited Rights and rights of publication, and are subject to the obligations, restrictions and covenants in connection with such awards;
 
   
failure to successfully identify, develop and commercialize additional products or product candidates could impair our ability to grow;
 
   
if our clinical trials fail to replicate positive results from earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials conducted by us or third parties, we may be unable to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates;
 
   
if our competitors develop more effective competing product candidates our business will be substantially harmed;
 
   
we depend upon senior management and senior scientific staff, and their loss or unavailability could put us at a competitive disadvantage;
 
   
we expect to rely on third parties to assist in conducting our clinical trials and manufacturing commercial supply of our products and if they do not perform satisfactorily, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval or commercialize our product candidates, or such approval or commercialization may be delayed, and our business could be substantially harmed;
 
   
we are subject to manufacturing risks that could substantially increase the costs and limit supply of product candidates or prevent us from achieving a commercially viable production process;
 
   
outbreaks of livestock diseases and other events affecting the health of our bovine herd can adversely impact our ability to conduct our operations and production of our product candidates;
 
   
we are subject to stringent environmental regulation and potentially subject to environmental litigation, proceedings, and investigations;
 
   
interruptions resulting from the
COVID-19
outbreak or similar public health crises could cause a disruption of the development of our product candidates and adversely impact our business.
Risks related to the Company’s intellectual property and related laws and regulations, including that:
 
   
security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business or prevent us from accessing critical information and expose us to liability, which could adversely affect our business and reputation;
 
   
our success may depend on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our technology;
 
   
we may become involved in litigation to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our collaborators or licensors, which could be expensive and time-consuming; and
 
   
if patent laws or the interpretation of patent laws change, our competitors may be able to develop and commercialize our discoveries.
Risks related to being a public company, including that:
 
   
we may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and stock price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment; and
 
   
we might not be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
 
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Risks related to ownership of our securities, including that:
 
   
insiders have substantial influence over the Company, which could limit your ability to affect the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control;
 
   
we may issue additional shares Common Stock (including upon the exercise of warrants or conversion of preferred stock) which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders;
 
   
we may redeem your unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your warrants worthless;
 
   
our actual financial position and results of operations may differ materially from the unaudited pro forma financial information included in this registration statement;
 
   
we will incur increased costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with the laws and regulations affecting public companies, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations; and
 
   
we are an “emerging growth company,” and our election to comply with the reduced disclosure requirements as a public company may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 2100 East 54th Street North Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104, and our telephone number is
(605)-679-6980.
Our corporate website address is
www.sabbiotherapeutics.com
. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
We and our subsidiaries own or have rights to trademarks, trade names and service marks that they use in connection with the operation of their business. In addition, their names, logos and website names and addresses are their trademarks or service marks. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, in some cases, the trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus are listed without the applicable
®
,
and
SM
symbols, but they will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks.
 
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The Offering
 
Shares of Common Stock offered by the Company
We are registering the issuance by us of 5,958,600 shares of Common Stock, which consists of (i) the issuance of up to 208,600 shares of Common Stock upon exercise of 208,600 warrants issued in a private placement to Big Cypress Holdings LLC (the “Sponsor”), in connection with the initial public offering of Big Cypress Acquisition Corp. (the “Private Placement Warrants”), and (ii) the issuance of up to 5,750,000 shares of Common Stock upon the exercise of 5,750,000 warrants issued in the initial public offering of Big Cypress Acquisition Corp. (the “Public Warrants,” and, together with the Private Placement Warrants, the “Warrants”).
 
  The exercise price of the Warrants is $11.50 per share.
 
  We will receive the proceeds from the exercise of any Warrants for cash.
 
  We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $68.5 million from the exercise of the Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants for general corporate purposes. See the section titled “
Use of Proceeds
.”
 
Shares of Common Stock offered by the selling securityholders
We are registering the resale by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus, or their permitted transferees, and aggregate of 20,392,901 shares of Common Stock, consisting of:
 
   
up to 3,047,825 shares held by the Sponsor;
 
   
up to 10,685,978 shares held by a member of the Board;
 
   
up to 244,373 shares held by Ladenburg and certain of its employees;
 
   
up to 247,525 shares held by Chardan and certain of its employees and designees; and
 
   
up to 5,958,600 shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of the Warrants.
 
  We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus.
 
Redemption
The Public Warrants are redeemable in certain circumstances. See the section titled “
Description of Our Securities — Warrants.
 
Lock-up
agreements
Certain of our securityholders are subject to certain restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable
lock-up
periods. See the section titled “
Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions —
Lock-Up
Agreements.
 
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Terms of the offering
The selling securityholders will determine when and how they will dispose of the securities registered for resale under this prospectus.
 
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares Common Stock by the selling securityholders.
 
Risk factors
Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read and consider the information set forth in “
Risk Factors
” beginning on page 15.
 
Nasdaq ticker symbols
“SABS” and “SABSW”
For additional information concerning the offering, see “
Plan of Distribution
” beginning on page 169.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, in addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed above under “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes included at the end of this prospectus and in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding to invest in our securities. If any of the events or developments described below were to occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially, the trading price of our securities could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business.
References to “we,” “us” and “our” refers to SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company and have incurred significant losses since our inception. We realized net loss in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, we may incur losses for the foreseeable future and may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to maintain profitability.
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company. We expect to experience variability in revenue and expenses which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and prospects. As such, we have incurred and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant operating losses in the foreseeable future. Our historical losses resulted principally from costs incurred in research and development, preclinical testing, clinical development of product candidates as well as costs incurred for research programs and from general and administrative costs associated with these operations. In the future, we intend to continue to conduct research and development, preclinical testing, clinical trials and regulatory compliance activities that, together with anticipated general and administrative expenses, will result in incurring further significant losses for the next several years. We expect that our operating expenses will continue to increase significantly, including as we:
 
   
continue the research and development of our clinical- and preclinical-stage product candidates and discovery stage programs, including the clinical trials of
SAB-185
and
SAB-176;
 
   
advance our preclinical-stage product candidates into clinical development;
 
   
invest in our technology and platform;
 
   
seek to identify, acquire and develop additional product candidates, including through business development efforts to invest in or
in-license
other technologies or product candidates;
 
   
seek regulatory approvals for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
 
   
market and sell our solutions to existing and new partners;
 
   
hire additional clinical, quality control, medical, scientific and other technical personnel to support our operations;
 
   
maintain, expand, enforce, protect, and defend our intellectual property portfolio;
 
   
create additional infrastructure to support operations;
 
   
add operational, financial, and management information systems and personnel to support operations as a public company; and
 
   
undertake any
pre-commercialization
activities to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for any product candidates for which we may receive regulatory approval in regions where we choose to commercialize our products on our own or jointly with third parties; and
 
   
experience any delays or encounter issues with any of the above.
 
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Biopharmaceutical product development entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that any potential product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate efficacy or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval, secure market access and reimbursement and become commercially viable, and therefore any investment in us is highly speculative. Accordingly, before making an investment in us, you should consider our prospects, factoring in the costs, uncertainties, delays and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in clinical development, especially clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies such as ours. Any predictions you make about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they would otherwise be if we had a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing and commercializing pharmaceutical products. We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known or unknown factors in achieving our business objectives.
Our expenses could increase beyond expectations for a variety of reasons, including as a result of our growth strategy and the increase in the scope and complexity of our operations. In executing our strategy and plans to invest in enhancing and scaling our business, we will need to generate significant additional revenue to achieve and maintain future profitability. We may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve profitability and our recent and historical growth should not be considered indicative of future performance.
Our limited operating history makes future forecasting difficult.
We commenced operations in April 2014. As a result of our limited operating history, it is difficult to accurately forecast revenues or to predict operating expenses. Our current and future expense estimates are based, in large part, on our estimates of future revenue and on our research, development and commercialization plans. In particular, we plan to increase operating expenses significantly in order to expand our research, development and sales and marketing operations. To the extent that these expenses precede increased revenue, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materially adversely affected. We may be unable to, or may elect not to, adjust spending quickly enough to offset any unexpected revenue shortfall. Therefore, any significant shortfall in revenue in relation to our expectations would also have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The successful development of pharmaceutical products is highly uncertain.
We currently have no products approved for sale and are investing substantially all of our efforts and financial resources in the development of our DiversitAb platform and clinical development of our current lead programs. The success of our business, including our ability to finance our company and generate any revenue in the future, will primarily depend on the successful development, regulatory approval and commercialization of therapeutic biological product candidates. We will need to raise sufficient funds for, and successfully complete, our preclinical development programs and future clinical trials of product candidates for our lead programs.
There is no guarantee that any product candidate we develop will proceed into and through clinical development or achieve regulatory approval to allow such products to be commercialized. Successful development of therapeutic biological products is highly uncertain and is dependent on numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. Product candidates that appear promising in the early phases of development may fail to reach the market for several reasons, including:
 
   
preclinical study results may show the product candidate to be less effective than desired or to have harmful side effects;
 
   
clinical trial results may show the product candidate to be less effective than expected (e.g., a clinical trial could fail to meet its primary or key secondary endpoint(s) or have an unacceptable safety or tolerability profile);
 
   
failure to receive the necessary regulatory approvals or a delay in receiving such approvals; and
 
   
post-marketing approval requirements.
 
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In addition, the length of time necessary to complete clinical trials and submit an application for marketing approval for a final decision by a regulatory authority varies significantly among product candidates, and any delay in receipt of marketing approval for a product candidate could negatively impact market acceptance of any resulting product. Even if we are successful in obtaining marketing approval, commercial success of any approved products will also depend in large part on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, including government payors such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs and managed care organizations in the United States or country specific governmental organizations in foreign countries, which may be affected by existing and future healthcare reform measures designed to reduce the cost of healthcare. Third-party payors could require us to conduct additional studies, including post-marketing studies related to the cost effectiveness of a product, to qualify for reimbursement, which could be costly and divert our resources. If government and other healthcare payors were not to provide coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products once approved, market acceptance and commercial success would be reduced.
In addition, if any of our product candidates receive marketing approval, we will be subject to significant regulatory obligations regarding the submission of safety and other post-marketing information and reports and registration, and will need to continue to comply (ensure that our third-party providers comply) with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs), and good clinical practices (GCPs), for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. In addition, there is always the risk that we, a regulatory authority or a third party might identify previously unknown problems with a product post-approval, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency. Compliance with these requirements is costly, and any failure to comply or other issues with our product candidates post-approval could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
All of our product candidates are in preclinical or clinical development. Clinical drug development is expensive, time consuming and uncertain, and we may ultimately not be able to obtain regulatory approvals for the commercialization of some or all of our product candidates.
The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, approval, selling, marketing and distribution of drug products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities, which regulations differ from country to country. Our product candidates are in various stages of development and are subject to the risks of failure typical of drug development. The development and approval process is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. We have not submitted an application for or received marketing approval for any of our product candidates. We have limited experience in conducting and managing the later-stage clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approvals, including approval by the FDA. To receive regulatory approval, we must, among other things, demonstrate with substantial evidence from clinical trials that the product candidate is safe and effective for each indication for which approval is sought, and failure can occur in any stage of development. Satisfaction of the approval requirements typically takes several years and the time needed to satisfy them may vary substantially, based on the type, complexity and novelty of the pharmaceutical product. We cannot predict if or when we might receive regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates currently under development.
We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. The clinical development of our initial and potential additional product candidates is susceptible to the risk of failure inherent at any stage of development, including failure to demonstrate efficacy in a clinical trial or across a broad population of patients, the occurrence of adverse events that are severe or medically or commercially unacceptable, failure to comply with protocols or applicable regulatory requirements and determination by the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority that a product candidate may not continue development or is not approvable. It is possible that even if any of our product candidates have a beneficial effect, that effect will not be detected during clinical evaluation as a result of one or more of a variety of factors, including the size, duration, design, measurements, conduct or analysis of our clinical trials. Conversely, as a result of the same factors, our clinical trials may indicate an apparent positive effect of such product candidate that is greater than the actual positive effect, if any. Similarly, in our clinical trials we may fail to detect toxicity of, or intolerability
 
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caused by, such product candidate, or mistakenly believe that our product candidates are toxic or not well tolerated when that is not in fact the case. Serious adverse events or other adverse events, as well as tolerability issues, could hinder or prevent market acceptance of the product candidate at issue.
The FDA and foreign regulatory authorities also have substantial discretion in the drug approval process. The number and types of preclinical studies and clinical trials that the FDA will require to establish substantial evidence of safety and effectiveness for regulatory approval varies depending on the product candidate, the disease or condition that the product candidate is designed to address, and the regulations applicable to any particular product candidate. Approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among countries and regulatory authorities, and there may be varying interpretations of data obtained from preclinical studies or clinical trials, either of which may cause delays or limitations in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory agencies can delay, limit or deny approval of a product candidate for many reasons, including:
 
   
the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
 
   
the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;
 
   
the clinical trial results may not confirm the positive results from earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials;
 
   
the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
 
   
the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to the satisfaction of FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities to support the submission of a BLA or other comparable submission in foreign jurisdictions or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;
 
   
regulatory agencies might not approve or might require changes to our manufacturing processes or facilities; and
 
   
regulatory agencies may change their approval policies, clinical development guidelines and recommendations, or adopt new regulations in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.
This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market our product candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects. The FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority may require more information, including additional preclinical or clinical data to support approval, which may delay or prevent approval and our commercialization plans, or which we may lead us to decide to abandon the development program.
In addition, even if we were to obtain marketing approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our product candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request (including failing to approve the most commercially promising indications), may require a REMS that restricts prescribing or distribution of our therapeutic biological product candidates, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical studies, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate.
 
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Regulatory approval for the genetic modification of animals, including those from which antibodies are isolated for injection into human patients, requires the approval of a New Animal Drug Application, which can be a lengthy and expensive process with uncertain outcomes, delays to which could substantially harm our business.
We cannot commercialize our therapeutic biological product candidates in the United States without first obtaining a regulatory approval for our animal drug candidates, i.e., the genomic modifications to our Tc Bovine, in the form of a NADA. The requirements governing development and approval of a new animal drug are largely analogous to those for new human drugs, requiring a demonstration of the safety and efficacy of the drug for the target indication, a demonstration that the manufacturing facilities, processes and controls are adequate with respect to such product candidate to assure safety, purity and potency, and a review of potential environmental impacts from the altered genomic DNA and the transgenic animals pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).
The time required to obtain approval for a NADA by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable. Approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of data necessary to gain approval is dependent on the specific product candidate and may change during the course of the product candidate’s preclinical and clinical development. Furthermore, we have not obtained regulatory approval for an animal drug and it is possible that none of our existing animal drug candidates, or any future animal drug candidates, will ever obtain regulatory approval. The reasons our animal drug candidates could fail to receive regulatory approvals are generally the same as the reasons that human drug product candidates may fail to obtain approval. Our failure to obtain a regulatory approval for our animal drug candidates could significantly harm our business, the results of our operations and our prospects. Requests for additional information from a regulatory authority could delay or prevent approval, or result in our decision to abandon the development program entirely.
If we do receive regulatory approval of our animal drug candidates, then we will have ongoing responsibilities including registration, recordkeeping, filing supplements, and periodic reporting, which could reveal additional complications and threaten the ongoing approval of our animal drug candidates. Further, as our polyclonal antibody product candidates are regulated as biological products, such product candidates will also require the submission and approval of a BLA prior to marketing. In general, to commercialize any of our product candidates, we must obtain marketing authorization for both the therapeutic antibody product and the altered animal genomic DNA that enables production of the polyclonal antibodies.
Any delay in obtaining or failure to obtain required approvals could materially adversely affect our ability to generate revenue from the particular product candidate, which likely would result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely impact our stock price.
We are not permitted to market our product candidates in the United States until we receive approval of a NADA and BLA from the FDA or in other countries until we receive similar marketing authorization from applicable regulatory authorities outside the United States. We are also not permitted to promote our product candidates as safe and effective therapies until after receiving approval. Obtaining approval of a NADA or BLA can be a lengthy, expensive and uncertain process. If we fail to obtain FDA approval to market our product candidates, we will be unable to sell our product candidates in the United States, which will significantly impair our ability to generate any revenue. In addition, failure to comply with FDA and
non-U.S.
regulatory requirements may, either before or after product approval, if any, subject our company to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:
 
   
restrictions on our ability to conduct clinical trials, including full or partial clinical holds on ongoing or planned trials;
 
   
restrictions on the products’ marketing, promotion, distribution or manufacturing processes;
 
   
warning letters or untitled letters alleging violations;
 
   
civil and criminal penalties;
 
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injunctions;
 
   
suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;
 
   
product seizures, detentions or import bans;
 
   
voluntary or mandatory product recalls and publicity requirements;
 
   
imposition of restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements;
 
   
suspension of substantive review of pending applications, such as NADAs, BLAs, INADs, or INDs, pending data validation; and
 
   
refusal to approve pending NADAs or BLAs or supplements to approved NADAs or BLAs.
Even if we do receive regulatory approval to market a product candidate, any such approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which we may market the product. It is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any product candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain the appropriate regulatory approvals necessary for us to commence product sales. Any delay in obtaining, or an inability to obtain, applicable regulatory approvals would prevent us from commercializing our product candidates, generating revenue and achieving and sustaining profitability.
If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in clinical trials, clinical trials of our product candidates may be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.
We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for any product candidate we develop if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the trial until conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including:
 
   
the size and nature of the patient population;
 
   
the design of the trial, including the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;
 
   
the size of the study population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;
 
   
the proximity of patients to trial sites;
 
   
our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;
 
   
competing clinical trials for similar therapies or other new therapeutics;
 
   
clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages and side effects of the drug candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs or treatments that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;
 
   
our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents;
 
   
travel restrictions and other potential limitations by federal, state, or local governments affecting the workforce or affecting clinical research site policies implemented in response to the
COVID-19
pandemic or similar public health emergencies that may arise in the future;
 
   
delays in or temporary suspension of the enrollment of patients in our anticipated clinical trials due to the
COVID-19
pandemic or similar public health emergencies that may arise in the future;
 
   
proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients;
 
   
the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will not complete a clinical trial; and
 
   
the availability of approved therapies that are similar in mechanism to our product candidates.
 
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If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of subjects in our anticipated clinical trials, such clinical trials may be delayed or terminated. Even if we are able to enroll a sufficient number of subjects in our future clinical trials, if the pace of enrollment is slower than we expect, the development costs for our product candidates may increase and the completion of such trials may be delayed or the trials could become too expensive to complete. Our failure to timely complete our current and planned clinical trials would delay the approval and commercialization of our product candidates, impair the commercial performance of our product candidates, may decrease the period of commercial exclusivity and consequently harm our business and results of operations.
Our preclinical studies and clinical trials may fail to demonstrate substantial evidence of the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, or serious adverse or unacceptable side effects may be identified during the development of our product candidates, which could prevent, delay or limit the scope of regulatory approval of our product candidates, limit their commercialization, increase costs or necessitate the abandonment or limitation of the development of some of our product candidates.
To obtain the requisite regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of our product candidates, we must demonstrate through lengthy, complex and expensive preclinical testing and clinical trials that such product candidates are safe, pure and potent for use in each target indication. These trials are expensive and time consuming, and their outcomes are inherently uncertain. Failures can occur at any time during the development process. Preclinical studies and clinical trials often fail to demonstrate safety or efficacy of the product candidate studied for the target indication, and most product candidates that begin clinical trials are never approved.
Success in preclinical studies does not ensure that later clinical trials will generate adequate data to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of any product candidate we may develop. Likewise, a number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including those with greater resources and experience than us, have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials, even after seeing promising results in earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials. Despite the results reported in preclinical studies for our product candidates to date, results may not be replicated in subsequent studies, and we do not know whether the clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to support regulatory approval of any current or future product candidate we develop. Moreover, later audits of earlier preclinical data may reveal inaccuracies or deviations impacting the integrity of those data.
Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in such studies or trials nonetheless failed to obtain FDA or other necessary regulatory agency approval.
We may fail to demonstrate with substantial evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials, and to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, that our product candidates are safe and potent for their intended uses. If any future late-stage clinical trials we may conduct do not produce favorable results, our ability to achieve regulatory approval for any of our product candidates may be adversely impacted. Even if we believe that we have adequate data to support an application for regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may not agree with our interpretation of the relevant data and may require that we conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials to support the regulatory approval of any product candidate that we develop. If we fail to obtain results in our planned and future preclinical and clinical activities and studies sufficient to meet the requirements of the relevant regulatory agencies, the development timeline and regulatory approval and commercialization prospects for any potential product candidate, and, correspondingly, our business and financial prospects, would be materially adversely affected.
 
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Our business is highly dependent on the success of our product candidates. If we are unable to successfully complete clinical development, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize one or more of our product candidates, or if we experience delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
We have not completed the development of any product candidates. Our future success and ability to generate revenue from our product candidates, which we do not expect will occur for several years, if ever, is dependent on our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize one or more of our product candidates. Our lead product candidate,
SAB-185,
was evaluated as part of the
ACTIV-2
master protocol, funded and conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (the NIH) in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. As the impacts of the
COVID-19
pandemic evolves, in March 2022, the NIH determined to discontinue the
Activ-2
Trial as a result of declining patient hospitalizations from COVID. We are currently planning for the next phase of our development for
SAB-185
and are considering a number of courses of action, including the potential to focus on identifying COVID patient groups who continue to be subject to serious illness and death. We cannot make any assurance that the NIH or any other party, will fund such course of action.
All of our other product candidates are in earlier stages of development and will require substantial additional investment for clinical development, regulatory review and approval in one or more jurisdictions. If any of our product candidates encounters safety or efficacy problems, development delays or regulatory issues or other problems, our development plans and business would be materially harmed.
We may not have the financial resources to continue development of our product candidates if we experience any issues that delay or prevent regulatory approval of, or our ability to commercialize, our product candidates, including:
 
   
our inability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that our product candidates are safe and effective;
 
   
insufficiency of our financial and other resources to complete the necessary clinical trials and preclinical studies;
 
   
negative or inconclusive results from our clinical trials, preclinical studies or the clinical trials of others for product candidates similar to ours, leading to a decision or requirement to conduct additional clinical trials or preclinical studies or abandon a program;
 
   
product-related adverse events experienced by subjects in our clinical trials, including unexpected toxicity results, or by individuals using drugs or therapeutic biologics similar to our product candidates;
 
   
delays in submitting an INAD or IND or comparable foreign applications or delays or failure in obtaining the necessary approvals from regulators to commence a clinical trial or a suspension or termination, or hold, of a clinical trial once commenced;
 
   
conditions imposed by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities regarding the scope or design of our clinical trials;
 
   
poor effectiveness of our product candidates during clinical trials;
 
   
delays in enrolling subjects in our clinical trials;
 
   
higher than anticipated clinical trial or manufacturing costs;
 
   
failure of our third-party contractors or investigators to comply with regulatory requirements or the clinical trial protocol or otherwise meet their contractual obligations in a timely manner, or at all; and
 
   
delays and changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines, including the imposition of additional regulatory oversight around clinical testing generally or with respect to our therapies in particular.
 
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The regulatory approval processes of the FDA is lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.
We are not permitted to commercialize, market, promote or sell any product candidate in the United States without obtaining regulatory approval from the FDA. The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign authorities is inherently unpredictable, but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. To date, we have not submitted a NADA or BLA to the FDA or similar drug or biological product approval submissions to comparable foreign regulatory authorities for any product candidate. With respect to our lead product,
SAB-185,
we must complete additional clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of
SAB-185
before we will be able to obtain these approvals.
We may never obtain FDA approval for any product candidates in the United States, and even if we do, we may never obtain approval for or commercialize any product candidates in any other jurisdiction, which would limit our ability to realize their full market potential.
In addition to regulations in the United States, to market and sell our product candidates in the European Union, many Asian countries and other jurisdictions, we must obtain separate regulatory approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements, both from a clinical and manufacturing perspective. The approval procedure for complex therapeutic biological product candidates such as ours varies among countries and can involve additional testing and validation and additional administrative review periods. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. Clinical trials accepted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries.
In addition, many countries outside the United States require that a product be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. A product candidate that has been approved for sale in a particular country may not receive reimbursement approval in that country. We may not be able to obtain approvals from regulatory authorities or payor authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory or payor authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory or payor authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. We may not be able to file for future regulatory approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market. If we are unable to obtain approval of any of our product candidates by regulatory or payor authorities in the European Union, Asia or elsewhere, the commercial prospects of that product candidate may be significantly diminished. We do not have any product candidates approved for sale in any jurisdiction, including in the United States or in international markets, and we do not have experience in obtaining regulatory approval in international markets. If we fail to comply with regulatory requirements in international markets or to obtain and maintain required approvals, or if regulatory approvals in international markets are delayed, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our products will be unrealized.
The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our regulatory plan for our product candidates.
The general approach for FDA approval of a new drug is dispositive data from two or more well-controlled Phase 3 clinical trials of the product candidate in the relevant patient population. Phase 3 clinical trials typically involve a large number of patients, have significant costs and take years to complete. In addition, there is no assurance that the endpoints and trial designs that we intend to use for our planned clinical trials, including those that we have developed based on feedback from regulatory agencies or those that have been used for the approval
 
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of similar drugs, will be acceptable for future approvals. Our clinical trial results may not support approval of our product candidates. In addition, our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval, or regulatory approval could be delayed, for many reasons, including the following:
 
   
the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not file or accept our NADA, BLA or other marketing applications for substantive review;
 
   
the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the dosing regimen, design or implementation of our clinical trials;
 
   
we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that our product candidates are safe and effective for any of their proposed indications;
 
   
the results of our clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;
 
   
we may be unable to demonstrate that our product candidates’ clinical and other benefits outweigh their safety risks;
 
   
the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities to support the submission of a NADA, BLA or other comparable submissions in foreign jurisdictions or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;
 
   
the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may find deficiencies with or fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and
 
   
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.
If our clinical trials fail to replicate positive results from earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials conducted by us or third parties, we may be unable to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates.
The results observed from preclinical studies or early-stage clinical trials of our product candidates may not necessarily be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials that we conduct. Similarly, positive results from such preclinical studies or early-stage clinical trials may not be replicated in our subsequent preclinical studies or clinical trials. There can be no assurance that any of our clinical trials will ultimately be successful or support further clinical development of any of our product candidates. There is a high failure rate for drugs proceeding through clinical trials. Many companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in late-stage clinical trials after achieving positive results in early-stage development, and we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. These setbacks have been caused by, among other things, preclinical findings made while clinical trials were underway or safety or efficacy observations made in preclinical studies and clinical trials, including previously unreported adverse events.
We may incur unexpected costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our product candidates.
To obtain the requisite regulatory approvals to commercialize any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate through extensive preclinical studies and clinical trials that our product candidates are safe and effective in humans. We may experience delays in completing our clinical trials or preclinical studies and initiating or completing additional clinical trials or preclinical studies, including as a result of regulators not allowing or delay in allowing clinical trials to proceed under an INAD or IND, or not approving or delaying approval for any clinical trial grant or similar approval we need to initiate a clinical trial. We may also experience
 
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numerous unforeseen events during our clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize the product candidates we develop, including:
 
   
regulators, institutional review boards (IRBs), or other reviewing bodies may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial, or to conduct or continue a clinical trial at a prospective or specific trial site;
 
   
we may not reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (CROs), and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
 
   
we may experience challenges or delays in recruiting principal investigators or study sites to lead our clinical trials;
 
   
the number of subjects or patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be insufficient or slower than we anticipate, and the number of clinical trials being conducted at any given time may be high and result in fewer available patients for any given clinical trial, or patients may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;
 
   
our third-party contractors, including those manufacturing our product candidates or conducting clinical trials on our behalf, may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
 
   
we may have to amend clinical trial protocols submitted to regulatory authorities or conduct additional studies to reflect changes in regulatory requirements or guidance;
 
   
regulators or other reviewing bodies may find deficiencies with, fail to approve or subsequently find fault with the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we enter into agreements for clinical and commercial supplies, or the supply or quality of any product candidate or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates may be insufficient, inadequate or not available at an acceptable cost, or we may experience interruptions in supply; and
 
   
the potential for approval policies or regulations of the FDA or the applicable foreign regulatory agencies to significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.
Regulators or IRBs of the institutions in which clinical trials are being conducted may suspend, limit or terminate a clinical trial, or data monitoring committees may recommend that we suspend or terminate a clinical trial, due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using an investigational product, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. Negative or inconclusive results from our clinical trials or preclinical studies could mandate repeated or additional clinical trials and, to the extent we choose to conduct clinical trials in other indications, could result in changes to or delays in clinical trials of our product candidates in such other indications. We do not know whether any clinical trials that we conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to result in regulatory approval to market our product candidates for the indications that we are pursuing. If later-stage clinical trials do not produce favorable results, our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates will be adversely impacted.
Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process for product candidates is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain, and may prevent us from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of our product candidates.
Any product candidate we develop and the activities associated with its development and commercialization, including its design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval,
 
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advertising, promotion, sale, and distribution, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and by comparable authorities in other countries. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a product candidate will prevent us from commercializing the product candidate in a given jurisdiction. We have not received approval to market any product candidates from regulatory authorities in any jurisdiction and it is possible that none of the product candidates we are developing or may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.
We have no experience in submitting and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party CROs or regulatory consultants to assist us in this process. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to the various regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the product candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing regulatory approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and successful inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authority. Any product candidates we develop may not be effective, may be only moderately effective, or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude its obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use.
The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive, may take many years if additional clinical trials are required, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity, and novelty of the product candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted product application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. The FDA and comparable authorities in other countries have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit, or prevent marketing approval of a product candidate. Any marketing approval that we may ultimately obtain could be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved product not commercially viable.
If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of any product candidates we may develop, the commercial prospects for those product candidates may be harmed, and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired.
Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data becomes available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.
From time to time, we may publish interim, topline or preliminary data from our clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Preliminary or topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, interim and preliminary data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. Adverse differences between preliminary or interim data and final data could significantly harm our reputation and business prospects.
If we do not achieve our projected development and commercialization goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, the development and commercialization of our product candidates may be delayed, and our business and results of operations may be harmed.
For planning purposes, we sometimes estimate the timing of the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development objectives. These milestones may include our expectations regarding the commencement or completion of scientific studies and clinical trials, the submission of regulatory filings or
 
26

commercialization objectives. From time to time, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these milestones, such as the completion of an ongoing clinical trial, the initiation of other clinical programs, receipt of marketing approval or a commercial launch of a product. The achievement of many of these milestones may be outside of our control. All of these milestones are based on a variety of assumptions which, if not realized as expected, may cause the timing of achievement of the milestones to vary considerably from our estimates, including:
 
   
our available capital resources or capital constraints we experience;
 
   
the rate of progress, costs and results of our clinical trials and research and development activities, including the extent of scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and collaborators;
 
   
our ability to identify and enroll patients who meet clinical trial eligibility criteria;
 
   
our receipt of approvals by the FDA and other regulatory authorities and the timing thereof;
 
   
other actions, decisions or rules issued by regulators;
 
   
our ability to access sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of materials used to manufacture of our product candidates;
 
   
the efforts of our collaborators with respect to the commercialization of our product candidates; and
 
   
the securing of, costs related to, and timing issues associated with, product manufacturing as well as sales and marketing activities.
If we fail to achieve announced milestones in the timeframes we expect, the development and commercialization of our product candidates may be delayed, and our business and results of operations may be harmed.
Changes in methods of product candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delays.
As product candidates proceed through preclinical studies to late-stage clinical trials towards potential approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods and formulation, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize processes and results. Such changes carry the risk that they will not achieve these intended objectives. Any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or other future clinical trials conducted with the materials manufactured using altered processes. Such changes may also require additional testing, FDA notification or FDA approval. This could delay or prevent completion of clinical trials, require conducting bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay or prevent approval of our product candidates and jeopardize our ability to commence sales and generate revenue.
Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following regulatory approval, if obtained.
Undesirable side effects caused by any of our product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities or a more restrictive label for any of our product candidates that may receive regulatory approval. In our planned and future clinical trials of our product candidates, we may observe a more unfavorable safety and tolerability profile than was observed in earlier-stage testing of these candidates.
If unacceptable side effects arise in the development of our product candidates, we, the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, the IRBs, or independent ethics committees at the institutions in which our trials
 
27

are conducted, could suspend, limit or terminate our clinical trials, or the independent safety monitoring committee could recommend that we suspend, limit or terminate our trials, or the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease clinical trials or deny approval of our product candidates for any or all targeted indications. Treatment-emergent side effects that are deemed to be related to administration of our product candidates could delay recruitment of clinical trial subjects or may cause subjects that enroll in our clinical trials to discontinue participation in our clinical trials. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. We may need to train medical personnel using our product candidates to understand the side effect profiles for our clinical trials and upon any commercialization of any of our product candidates. Inadequate training in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of our product candidates could result in harm to patients that are administered our product candidates.
Additionally, during the course of our product development programs, FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority review teams may change and new agency personnel may view the risk-benefit profile of any product candidates we may develop differently than prior agency review teams. Any negative views as to the risk-benefit profile of the product candidates we are developing for our lead programs or any product candidates we may develop in the future could lead FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities to require that we conduct additional clinical trials or could require more onerous clinical trial designs for any then-ongoing or future clinical trials. The product-related side effects also could result in potential product liability claims being asserted against us. Furthermore, we or others may later identify undesirable side effects caused by our products, including during any long-term
follow-up
observation period.
If any of our product candidates receives regulatory approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused or risks exacerbated by such product, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result. For example, the FDA could require us to adopt a REMS to ensure that the benefits of treatment with such product candidate outweigh the risks for each potential patient; a REMS may include, among other things, a communication plan to healthcare practitioners, patient education, extensive patient monitoring or distribution systems and processes that are highly controlled, restrictive and more costly than what is typical for the biopharmaceutical industry. Other potentially significant negative consequences include that:
 
   
we may be forced to suspend marketing of that product, or decide to recall the product or remove it from the marketplace;
 
   
regulatory authorities may withdraw or limit their approvals of that product;
 
   
regulatory authorities may require additional statements, specific warnings or contraindications on the label or limit access of that product to selective specialized centers with additional safety reporting and with requirements that patients be geographically close to these centers for all or part of their treatment;
 
   
we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials or costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product;
 
   
we may be required to change the way the product is distributed or administered;
 
   
we may be subject to regulatory investigations and government enforcement actions;
 
   
we could be subject to fines, injunctions, or the imposition of criminal or civil penalties, or to sued and held liable for harm caused to subjects or patients; and
 
   
the product may become less competitive, and our reputation may suffer.
Any of these occurrences could diminish the usage or otherwise limit the commercial success of our product candidates and prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product candidate, if approved by applicable regulatory authorities, and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.
 
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The future commercial success of our product candidates will depend on the degree of market acceptance of our potential products among physicians, patients, healthcare payers, and the medical community.
When available on the market, our products may not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, patients and the medical community, which may result in us failing to achieve profitability. In addition, efforts to educate the medical community and third-party payers on the benefits of our products may require significant resources and may never be successful, which would prevent us from generating significant revenues or becoming profitable.
Failure to successfully identify, develop and commercialize additional products or product candidates could impair our ability to grow.
Although a substantial amount of our efforts will focus on the continued preclinical and clinical testing and potential approval of product candidates in our current pipeline, a key element of long-term growth strategy is to develop and market additional products and product candidates. Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, research programs to identify product candidates will require substantial additional technical, financial and human resources, whether or not any product candidates are ultimately identified. The success of this strategy depends partly upon our ability to identify, select and develop promising product candidates and products. Our technology platforms may fail to discover and to generate additional product candidates that are suitable for further development. All product candidates are prone to risks of failure typical of pharmaceutical product development, including the possibility that a product candidate may not be suitable for clinical development as a result of its harmful side effects, limited efficacy or other characteristics that indicate that it is unlikely to be a product that will receive approval by the FDA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities and achieve market acceptance. If we do not successfully develop and commercialize product candidates based upon its technological approach, we may not be able to obtain product or collaboration revenues in future periods, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our long-term growth strategy to develop and market additional products and product candidates is heavily dependent on precise, accurate and reliable scientific data to identify, select and develop promising pharmaceutical product candidates and products. Our business decisions may therefore be adversely influenced by improper or fraudulent scientific data sourced from third parties. Any irregularities in the scientific data used by us to determine our focus in research and development of product candidates and products could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to develop our sales, marketing and distribution capability on our own or through collaborations with marketing partners, we will not be successful in commercializing our product candidates.
We currently have no marketing, sales or distribution capabilities. We intend to establish a sales and marketing organization, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize
SAB-185,
SAB 176 and our other product candidates that may receive regulatory approval in key territories. These efforts will require substantial additional resources, some or all of which may be incurred in advance of any approval of the product candidate. Any failure or delay in the development of our or third parties’ internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities would adversely impact the commercialization of
SAB-185,
SAB 176 and our other product candidates and other future product candidates.
Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our product candidates on our own include:
 
   
our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;
 
   
our inability of sales personnel to obtain access to or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future products;
 
29

   
the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and
 
   
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.
With respect to our existing and future product candidates, we may choose to collaborate with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems to serve as an alternative to our own sales force and distribution systems. Our future product revenue may be lower than if we directly marketed or sold our product candidates, if approved. In addition, any revenue we receive will depend in whole or in part upon the efforts of these third parties, which may not be successful and are generally not within our control. If we are not successful in commercializing any approved products, our future product revenue will suffer and we may incur significant additional losses.
If we do not establish sales and marketing capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing our product candidates.
Product liability lawsuits against us or any of our future collaborators could divert our resources and attention, cause us to incur substantial liabilities and limit commercialization of our product candidates.
We are exposed to potential product liability and professional indemnity risks that are inherent in the research, development, manufacturing, marketing and use of pharmaceutical products. Currently, we have no products that have been approved for commercial sale; however, the use of our product candidates by us and any collaborators in clinical trials, and the sale of these product candidates, if approved, in the future, may expose us to liability claims. We face an inherent risk of product liability lawsuits related to the use of our product candidates in patients, and will face an even greater risk if product candidates are approved by regulatory authorities and introduced commercially. Product liability claims may be brought against us by participants enrolled in our clinical trials, patients, health care providers, pharmaceutical companies, our collaborators or others using, administering or selling any of our future approved products. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against any such claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:
 
   
decreased demand for any of our future approved products;
 
   
injury to our reputation;
 
   
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
 
   
termination of clinical trial sites or entire trial programs;
 
   
significant litigation costs;
 
   
substantial monetary awards to, or costly settlements with, patients or other claimants;
 
   
product recalls or a change in the indications for which they may be used;
 
   
loss of revenue;
 
   
diversion of management and scientific resources from our business operations; and
 
   
the inability to commercialize our product candidates.
Although the clinical trial process is designed to identify and assess potential side effects, clinical development does not always fully characterize the safety and efficacy profile of a new medicine, and it is always possible that a drug, even after regulatory approval, may exhibit unforeseen side effects. If our product candidates were to cause adverse side effects during clinical trials or after approval, we may be exposed to substantial liabilities. Physicians and patients may not comply with any warnings that identify known potential adverse effects and
 
30

patients who should not use our product candidates. If any of our product candidates are approved for commercial sale, we will be highly dependent upon consumer perceptions of us and the safety and quality of our products. We could be adversely affected if we are subject to negative publicity associated with illness or other adverse effects resulting from patients’ use or misuse of our products or any similar products distributed by other companies.
Although we maintain product liability insurance coverage consistent with industry norms, including clinical trial liability, this insurance may not fully cover potential liabilities that we may incur. The cost of any product liability litigation or other proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. We will need to increase our insurance coverage if we commercialize any product that receives regulatory approval. In addition, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive. If we are unable to maintain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, it could prevent or inhibit the development and commercial production and sale of our product candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our current and future relationships with customers and third party payors in the United States and elsewhere may be subject, directly or indirectly, to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, transparency, health information privacy and security and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.
Healthcare providers, physicians and third party payors in the United States and elsewhere will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our future arrangements with third party payors, distributors, retailers, marketers and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act, and similar state or foreign laws which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we sell, market and distribute any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. In addition, we may be subject to transparency laws and patient privacy regulation by U.S. federal and state governments and by governments in foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include, but are not necessarily limited to:
 
   
the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under federal and state healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid;
 
   
federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including the federal False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent, making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government, or the knowing retention of an overpayment from government health care programs; the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
 
   
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, which impose obligations on covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates that create, receive, maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of a covered entity, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
 
31

   
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires manufacturers of certain drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to “payments or other transfers of value” made to physicians, which is defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors, and certain teaching hospitals and applicable manufacturers to report annually to CMS ownership and investment interests held by the physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report such information regarding payments and transfers of value provided during the previous year to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, anesthesiologist assistants, certified nurse anesthetists and certified nurse-midwives; and
 
   
analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by
non-governmental
third party payors, including private insurers; state and foreign laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers; state and foreign laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.
Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business, including our collaborators, is found not to be in compliance with applicable laws, it may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from participation in government healthcare programs, which could also materially affect our business.
Regulatory approval for any approved product is limited by the FDA to those specific indications and conditions for which clinical safety and efficacy have been demonstrated.
Any regulatory approval is limited to those specific diseases and indications for which a product is deemed to be safe and effective by the FDA. In addition to the FDA approval required for new formulations, any new indication for an approved product also requires FDA approval. If we are not able to obtain FDA approval for any desired future indications for our products, our ability to effectively market and sell our products may be reduced and our business may be adversely affected.
While our ability to promote the products is limited to those indications that are specifically approved by the FDA, physicians may choose to prescribe drugs for uses that are not described in the product’s approved labeling and for uses that differ from those tested in clinical studies and approved by the regulatory authorities. These
“off-label”
uses are common across medical specialties and may constitute an appropriate treatment for some patients in varied circumstances. Regulatory authorities in the United States generally do not regulate a physician’s use of professional judgment in prescribing treatments for patients. Regulatory authorities do,
 
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however, restrict communications by pharmaceutical companies on the subject of
off-label
use or
off-label
information. If our promotional activities fail to comply with these regulations or guidelines, we may be subject to warnings from, or enforcement action by, these authorities. In addition, our failure to follow FDA rules and guidelines relating to promotion and advertising may cause the FDA to suspend or withdraw an approved product from the market, require a recall or corrective advertising, institute fines, or could result in disgorgement of money, operating restrictions, injunctions or civil or criminal prosecution by the government, any of which could harm our reputation and business.
Current and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize any product candidates we or our collaborators develop and may adversely affect the prices for such product candidates.
In the United States and certain
non-U.S.
jurisdictions, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could, among other things, prevent or delay marketing approval of our product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our or our collaborators’ ability to profitably sell any product candidates that obtain marketing approval.
For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, collectively the Affordable Care Act, was enacted in the United States. Among the provisions of the Affordable Care Act of importance to our product candidates, the Affordable Care Act established an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports specified branded prescription drugs and biologic agents; increased the statutory minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, extended manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, expanded eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs, expanded the entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health program, addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected, created a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must now agree to offer 70%
point-of-sale
discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D, and created a licensure framework for
follow-on
biologic products.
Since its enactment, there have been judicial, executive and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act. However, following several years of litigation in the federal courts, in June 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the ACA when it dismissed a legal challenge to the ACA’s constitutionality. Further legislative and regulatory changes under the ACA remain possible, but it is unknown what form any such changes or any law would take or how or whether such changes may affect the biopharmaceutical industry as a whole or our business in the future.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011 was signed into law, which, among other things, included reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021, unless additional Congressional action is taken. On January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.
Further, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over pharmaceutical pricing practices in light of the rising cost of prescription drugs and biologics. Such scrutiny has resulted in several Congressional
 
33

inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies, rebates and price negotiation for pharmaceutical products. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product and medical device pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and medical devices to purchase and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs.
We expect that other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria, new payment methodologies and in additional downward pressure on the price that we or our collaborators may receive for any approved or cleared product. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we or our collaborators are slow or unable to adapt to new requirements or policies, or if we or our collaborators are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, any of our product candidates may lose any regulatory approval that may have been obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, our products will remain subject to regulatory scrutiny.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval in a jurisdiction for our product candidates, they will be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion, sampling, recordkeeping, and submission of safety and other post-market information. Any regulatory approvals that we receive for our product candidates may also be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing, including Phase 4 clinical trials, and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product. For example, the holder of an approved BLA is obligated to monitor and report adverse events and any failure of a product to meet the specifications in the BLA. The holder of an approved BLA must also submit new or supplemental applications and obtain FDA approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling or manufacturing process. Advertising and promotional materials and claims must be consistent with approved labeling and be in compliance with FDA regulations as well as other potentially applicable federal and state laws. In addition, biological product advertising and promotional materials intended to be used during the first 120 days after approval must be submitted to the FDA during the BLA review period. After approval, advertising and promotional materials must be submitted to the FDA 30 days prior to their intended use.
In addition, product manufacturers are subject to payment of program fees and continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with GMP requirements and adherence to commitments made in the BLA or foreign marketing application. If we or a regulatory agency discovers previously unknown problems with a product such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured or with the integrity or sufficiency of data, records, or documentation, or disagrees with the promotion, marketing or labeling of that product, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions relative to that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing.
If we or a regulatory agency later discovers previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with our third-party manufacturers or manufacturing processes,
 
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or if we fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements following approval of any of our product candidates, a regulatory agency may:
 
   
issue a warning letter asserting that we are in violation of the law;
 
   
seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;
 
   
suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;
 
   
suspend any ongoing clinical trials;
 
   
refuse to approve a pending BLA or comparable foreign marketing application (any supplements thereto) submitted by us or our strategic partners;
 
   
restrict the marketing or labeling of the product;
 
   
restrict manufacturing of the product, the approved manufacturers or the manufacturing process;
 
   
restrict product distribution or use;
 
   
demand a recall;
 
   
seize or detain product or otherwise require the withdrawal of product from the market;
 
   
impose fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues;
 
   
impose consent decrees, injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties;
 
   
refuse to permit the import or export of products; or
 
   
refuse to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts.
Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response and could generate negative publicity. The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate revenue.
Advertising and promotion of any human therapeutic biological product candidate that obtains approval in the United States will be heavily scrutinized by the FDA, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Justice (DOJ), the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), state attorneys general, members of the U.S. Congress and the public. Additionally, advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval outside of the United States will be heavily scrutinized by comparable foreign entities and stakeholders. Violations, including actual or alleged promotion of our products for unapproved or
off-label
uses, are subject to enforcement letters, inquiries and investigations, and civil and criminal sanctions by the FDA, other U.S. governmental authorities, or comparable foreign bodies. Any actual or alleged failure to comply with labeling and promotion requirements may result in fines, warning letters, mandates to issue corrective information to healthcare practitioners and/or the general public, injunctions, or civil or criminal penalties.
In addition, the FDA’s policies may change and additional government laws may be enacted and implementing regulations promulgated, which could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Disruptions at the FDA and other government agencies caused by funding shortages or global health concerns could hinder their ability to hire, retain or deploy key leadership and other personnel, or otherwise prevent new or modified products from being developed, approved or commercialized in a timely manner or at all, which could negatively impact our business.
The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, statutory, regulatory and policy changes, the FDA’s ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and other events that may otherwise affect the FDA’s ability to perform routine functions. Average review times at the FDA have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of other government agencies that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable. Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new biologics or modifications to approved biologics to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including for 35 days beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical FDA employees and stop critical activities.
Separately, in response to the
COVID-19
pandemic, on March 10, 2020 the FDA announced its intention to postpone most inspections of foreign manufacturing facilities and products. Subsequently, on March 18, 2020 the FDA temporarily postponed routine surveillance inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities. Subsequently, on July 10, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to resume certain
on-site
inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities subject to a risk-based prioritization system. The FDA intends to use this risk-based assessment system to identify the categories of regulatory activity that can occur within a given geographic area, ranging from mission critical inspections to resumption of all regulatory activities. Additionally, on April 15, 2021, the FDA issued a guidance document in which the FDA described its plans to conduct voluntary remote interactive evaluations of certain drug manufacturing facilities and clinical research sites. According to the guidance, the FDA intends to request such remote interactive evaluations in situations where an
in-person
inspection would not be prioritized, deemed mission-critical, or where direct inspection is otherwise limited by travel restrictions, but where the FDA determines that remote evaluation would be appropriate. In November 2021, FDA reported that it is developing a plan for fiscal year 2022 inspections of medical product facilities using the agency’s established risk models and that facility inspections postponed due to the pandemic will be reprioritized. Regulatory authorities outside the United States may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the pandemic related to
COVID-19
and its variants. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, or if global health concerns continue to prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA or other regulatory authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We need to attract and retain highly skilled personnel and strategic partners, and we may be unable to effectively manage our growth with our limited resources.
We have limited human resources and our future success will depend in part on our ability to attract, train, retain and motivate highly skilled executive level management, research and development, and sales personnel and to establish and maintain effective strategic alliances with key companies in our industry. Competition is intense for many of these types of personnel from other companies, consulting firms and more established organizations, many of which have significantly larger operations and greater financial, marketing, human, and other resources. We may not be successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel on a timely basis, on competitive terms or at all. If we are not successful in attracting and retaining these personnel, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
 
36

We anticipate adding new employees and we will have to integrate such new employees into our operations.
Our officers and directors may not possess all of the skills or experience necessary to successfully implement our business plan. Further, we anticipate hiring new employees. Failure to fully integrate new employees into our operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend upon our senior management and senior scientific staff, and their loss or unavailability could put us at a competitive disadvantage.
Our success depends largely on the skills, experience and reputation of certain key management and personnel, in particular our directors, executive officers and senior scientific staff. The loss or unavailability of any of these individuals for any significant period of time could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our employees and independent contractors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners, suppliers and distributors may engage in fraudulent or illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or disclosure of unauthorized activities to us that violates: (i) the rules and regulations of the FDA and other similar foreign regulatory bodies, including those laws requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to such regulators; (ii) manufacturing standards; (iii) healthcare fraud and abuse laws in the United States and similar foreign fraudulent misconduct laws; or (iv) laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. These laws may impact, among other things, future sales, marketing and education programs. In particular, the promotion, sales and marketing of healthcare items and services, as well as certain business arrangements in the healthcare industry, are subject to extensive laws designed to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, structuring and commissions, certain customer incentive programs and other business arrangements generally. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of patient recruitment for clinical trials.
We have adopted a code of conduct, but it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by our employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent these activities may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could result in the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, additional integrity reporting and oversight obligations, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment of operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. Whether or not we are successful in defending against any such actions or investigations, we could incur substantial costs, including legal fees, and divert the attention of management in defending ourselves against any of these claims or investigations, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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We rely on third parties to perform some of our research and preclinical studies and we plan to rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials. If these third parties do not satisfactorily carry out their contractual duties or fail to meet expected deadlines, our development programs may be delayed or subject to increased costs, each of which may have an adverse effect on our business and prospects.
We do not have the ability to conduct all aspects of our preclinical studies or future clinical trials ourselves. As a result, we are, and expect to remain, dependent on third parties to perform some of our research and preclinical studies and any future clinical trials of our product candidates, including but not limited to governmental agencies and university laboratories, contract manufacturers, contract research organizations (CROs), distribution and supply (logistics) services organizations, contract testing organizations (CTOs), consultants or consultant organization with specialized knowledge based expertise. The timing of the initiation and completion of our current and planned preclinical studies and clinical trials will therefore be partially controlled by such third parties and may result in delays to our development programs. Specifically, we expect CROs, clinical investigators, and consultants to play a significant role in the conduct of future clinical trials and the subsequent collection and analysis of data. However, we will not be able to control all aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, as the sponsor of the INADs, INDs and clinical protocols governing our future clinical trials, we will be responsible for ensuring that each of our trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on the CROs, CTOs, and other third parties does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We, our CROs, CTOs, and clinical sites will be required to comply with GLP requirements for preclinical studies, as well as GCP requirements for clinical trials involving human subjects, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA, the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the European Economic Area, and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, for all of our current product candidates and any future product candidates in clinical development. Regulatory authorities enforce these GLP and GCP requirements through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, testing laboratories, clinical trial investigators, and clinical trial sites. If we or any of our CROs, CTOs, or clinical trial sites fail to adhere to our clinical trial protocols or to comply with applicable GLP or GCP requirements, as applicable, the data generated in our future preclinical studies or clinical trials may be deemed unreliable, and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional preclinical studies or clinical trials before accepting for review or approving our marketing applications. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product candidates produced under GMP regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to stop and/or repeat clinical trials, which would delay the marketing approval process.
Moreover, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected interpretation of the trial results or data. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority, as the case may be, and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of our product candidates.
There is no guarantee that any such CROs, CTOs, clinical trial investigators or other third parties on which we plan to rely will devote adequate time and resources to our development activities or perform as contractually required. Further, the performance of our third parties on which we rely may be interrupted by the ongoing
COVID-19
pandemic, including due to travel or quarantine policies, heightened exposure of CRO staff who are healthcare providers to
COVID-19
or prioritization of resources toward the pandemic (similar public health emergencies that may arise in the future). If any of these third parties fails to meet expected deadlines, adhere to our clinical protocols or meet regulatory requirements, otherwise performs in a substandard manner, or terminates its engagement with us, the timelines for our development programs may be extended or delayed or
 
38

our development activities may be suspended or terminated. If any of our future clinical trial sites terminates for any reason, we may experience the loss of
follow-up
information on subjects enrolled in such clinical trials unless we are able to transfer those subjects to another qualified clinical trial site, which may be difficult or impossible.
We are limited in our ability to manufacture pharmaceutical products.
To be successful, our products and the products of our partners must be manufactured in commercial quantities in compliance with regulatory requirements and at a commercially acceptable cost. We have not commercialized any pharmaceutical products, nor have we demonstrated an ability to manufacture commercial quantities of our or our partners’ product candidates in accordance with regulatory requirements. If we are unable to produce suitable quantities of our or our partners’ products, or contract third parties to do so, in accordance with regulatory standards at a commercially acceptable cost, our ability or the ability of our partners to conduct clinical trials, obtain regulatory approvals and market such products may be adversely affected, which could adversely affect our competitive position and our chances of achieving profitability. There can be no assurance that such products can be manufactured by us or any other party at a cost or in quantities which are commercially viable.
We intend to rely on third parties to produce commercial supplies of our product candidates.
We intend to rely on third-party manufacturers to supply us with sufficient quantities of our product candidates to be used, if approved, for commercialization. We do not yet have a commercial supply agreement for commercial quantities of drug substance or drug product. If we are not able to meet market demand for any approved product, it would negatively impact our ability to generate revenue, harm our reputation, and could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Further, our reliance on third-party manufacturers entails risks to which we would not be subject if we manufactured product candidates ourselves, including:
 
   
inability to meet our product specifications and quality requirements consistently;
 
   
delay or inability to procure or expand sufficient manufacturing capacity;
 
   
issues related to
scale-up
of manufacturing;
 
   
costs and validation of new equipment and facilities required for
scale-up;
 
   
our third-party manufacturers may not be able to execute our manufacturing procedures and other logistical support requirements appropriately;
 
   
our third-party manufacturers may fail to comply with cGMP requirements and other inspections by the FDA or other comparable regulatory authorities;
 
   
our inability to negotiate manufacturing agreements with third parties under commercially reasonable terms, if at all;
 
   
breach, termination or nonrenewal of manufacturing agreements with third parties in a manner or at a time that is costly or damaging to us;
 
   
reliance on single sources for drug components;
 
   
lack of qualified backup suppliers for those components that are currently purchased from a sole or single-source supplier;
 
   
our third-party manufacturers may not devote sufficient resources to our product candidates;
 
   
we may not own, or may have to share, the intellectual property rights to any improvements made by our third-party manufacturers in the manufacturing process for our product candidates;
 
39

   
operations of our third-party manufacturers or suppliers could be disrupted by conditions unrelated to our business or operations, including the bankruptcy of the manufacturer or supplier; and
 
   
carrier disruptions or increased costs that are beyond our control.
In addition, if we enter into a strategic collaboration with a third party for the commercialization of our current or any future product candidates, we will not be able to control the amount of time or resources that they devote to such efforts. If any strategic collaborator does not commit adequate resources to the marketing and distribution of our product candidates, it could limit our potential revenues.
Any of these events could lead to clinical trial delays or failure to obtain regulatory approval, or impact our ability to successfully commercialize our current or any future product candidates once approved. Some of these events could be the basis for FDA action, including injunction, request for recall, seizure, or total or partial suspension of production.
If we fail to successfully operate our animal production facility, it may adversely affect our clinical trials and the commercial viability of our product candidates.
We operate our own animal production facility, where we produce supplies of our product candidates for our preclinical and clinical studies, and such facility is currently subject to certain regulatory requirements and inspections, including by the USDA to ensure compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations relating to the care and welfare of laboratory and research animals.
Before approving any of our product candidates for commercialization, the FDA must conduct a
pre-approval
inspection of our animal production and manufacturing facilities to determine whether the manufacturing processes and facilities comply with GMPs. If and when we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we would need to register our animal production and manufacturing facilities with the FDA and list all licensed biological products manufactured at such facilities. Even if the FDA determines that our facilities are in substantial compliance with applicable regulations and standards, we would be subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspection by the FDA, the USDA, corresponding state agencies and potentially third party collaborators to ensure strict compliance with GMPs, animal welfare requirements, and other applicable laws and government regulations. Our license to manufacture such future approved product candidates will be subject to continued regulatory review.
In addition, our animal production facility maintains detailed standard operating procedures and other documentation necessary to comply with the Animal Welfare Act and applicable regulations for the humane treatment of the pigs and piglets in our custody. We also maintain an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) to provide ongoing oversight and to conduct assessments of the care and use of the animals in our research and development programs. If the USDA determines that our current equipment, facilities, or processes relating to donor animal production do not comply with applicable Animal Welfare Act standards, it may issue an inspection report documenting the deficiencies and setting deadlines for any required corrective actions. For continued noncompliance, the USDA may impose fines, suspend, or revoke animal research licenses or confiscate research animals.
There can be no assurance that we will not encounter difficulties in scaling up our manufacturing processes. Significant
scale-up
of manufacturing may result in unanticipated technical challenges and may require additional inspections, permits, or other authorizations by the FDA, the USDA, or corresponding state agencies. We may encounter difficulties in scaling up production, including problems involving raw material suppliers, production yields, technical difficulties,
scaled-up
product characteristics, quality control and assurance, shortage of qualified personnel, capacity constraints, compliance with FDA and foreign regulations, environmental compliance, production costs and development of advanced manufacturing techniques and process controls. The actual cost to manufacture and process our product candidates could also be greater than we expect and could
 
40

materially and adversely affect the commercial viability of any product candidates that we develop. Any of these difficulties, if they occur and are not resolved to the satisfaction of the FDA or other regulatory agency, could lead to significant delays and possibly the termination of the future development or commercial program for such product candidate. These risks become more acute as we
scale-up
for commercial quantities, where a reliable source of product becomes critical to commercial success. The commercial viability of any of our product candidates, if approved, will depend on our ability to produce our product candidates at a large scale. Failure to achieve this level of supply could jeopardize the successful commercialization of our therapeutic product candidates, should any be approved for marketing.
The manufacture of polyclonal antibodies from transgenic animals is complex and requires significant expertise, including the development of advanced manufacturing techniques and process controls. Manufacturers of polyclonal antibody products often encounter difficulties in production, particularly in scaling out up and validating initial production and ensuring the absence of contamination. These problems include difficulties with production costs and yields, quality control, including stability of the product candidate, quality assurance testing, operator error, shortages of qualified personnel, shortages of raw materials, as well as compliance with strictly enforced federal, state and foreign regulations. Furthermore, if contaminants are discovered in our animal production facility, it may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination. We cannot ensure provide assurance that any stability or other issues relating to the manufacture of our product candidates will not occur in the future.
Our manufacturing capabilities could be affected by cost-overruns, resource constraints, unexpected delays, equipment failures, labor shortages or disputes, natural disasters, power failures and numerous other factors that could prevent us from realizing the intended benefits of our manufacturing strategy, jeopardize our ability to produce our product candidates, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our product candidates are uniquely manufactured and we may encounter difficulties in production, particularly with respect to scaling our manufacturing capabilities.
The manufacturing process used to produce Tc Bovine is novel and has not been validated for commercial production.
There is a risk that of we may experience manufacturing issues associated with the differences in donor starting materials, interruptions in the manufacturing process, contamination, equipment or reagent failure, improper installation or operation of equipment, vendor or operator error, and variability in product characteristics. Even minor deviations from our normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, lot failures, product defects, product delays, product recalls, product liability claims and other supply disruptions. Further, as product candidates advance through preclinical to later-stage clinical trials towards approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods, are altered in an effort to optimize processes and results. We may not achieve our intended objectives and any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently than we expect, potentially affecting the results of future clinical trials.
Although we continually attempt to optimize our manufacturing process, doing so is a difficult and uncertain task and there are risks associated with scaling to the level required for future initial clinical trials, advanced late-stage clinical trials or commercialization, including, among others, cost overruns, potential problems with process
scale-up,
process reproducibility, stability issues, lot consistency and timely availability of reagents or raw materials. If we are unable to adequately validate or
scale-up
our manufacturing processes, we may encounter lengthy delays in commercializing our product candidates.
The manufacturing process for any products candidates that we may develop is subject to the FDA and foreign regulatory authority approval processes and, if we choose to outsource our commercial production, we will need
 
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to contract with third-party manufacturers who we believe can meet applicable FDA, USDA, and foreign regulatory authority requirements on an ongoing basis. If we are unable to reliably produce any product candidate to specifications acceptable to the FDA, the USDA, or other regulatory authorities, we may not obtain or maintain the approvals we need to commercialize our products. Even if we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, there is no assurance that either we or any third-party manufacturers we may contract with in the future will be able to manufacture the approved product to specifications and under GMPs acceptable to the FDA or other regulatory authorities, to produce it in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements for the potential launch of the product, or to meet potential future demand. Any of these challenges could delay completion of future clinical trials, require bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidates, impair commercialization efforts, increase our cost of goods and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our future success depends on our ability to manufacture our product candidates on a timely basis with acceptable manufacturing costs, while at the same time maintaining good quality control and complying with applicable regulatory requirements. Our inability to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, prospects and results of operations. In addition, we could incur higher manufacturing costs if manufacturing processes or standards change and we could need to replace, modify, design or build and install equipment, all of which would require additional capital expenditures.
We have not entered into long term manufacturing and supply agreements with any producers.
We intend to pursue agreements with contract manufacturers to produce the components and drug products that we will use in the future for the commercialization of products that make using of our technology, as well as for labeling and finishing services. We may not be able to enter into such arrangements on acceptable terms or at all. Components of our product candidates are currently manufactured for us in small quantities for use in our preclinical and clinical studies. We will require significantly greater quantities to commercialize any given product. We may not be able to find alternate sources of comparable components. If we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of components from our existing suppliers or need to switch to an alternate supplier and obtain FDA or other regulatory agency approval of that supplier, commercialization of our product candidates may be delayed. If we are unable to obtain sufficient compounds and labeling services on acceptable terms, or if we should encounter delays or difficulties in our relationships with our current and future suppliers or if our current and future suppliers of each component do not comply with applicable regulations for the manufacturing and production of drugs, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially harmed.
We are subject to manufacturing risks that could substantially increase the costs and limit supply of product candidates or prevent us from achieving a commercially viable production process.
The process of manufacturing our product candidates is complex, highly regulated and subject to several risks, including:
 
   
we do not have experience in manufacturing our product candidates at commercial scale;
 
   
we plan to develop a larger scale manufacturing process for our product candidates;
 
   
we may not succeed in scaling up the process; and
 
   
we may need a larger scale manufacturing process for certain product candidates than what has been planned.
Any changes in our manufacturing processes as a result of scaling up may result in the need to obtain additional regulatory approvals. Difficulties in achieving commercial-scale production or the need for additional regulatory approvals as a result of scaling up could delay the development and regulatory approval of our product candidates and ultimately affect our success. We may not achieve the manufacturing productivity (“yield”)
 
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required to achieve a commercially viable cost of goods. Low productivities may result in a cost of goods which is too high to allow profitable commercialization, or give rise to the need for additional manufacturing process optimization which would require additional funding and time.
Additionally, the process of manufacturing biologics, such as our product candidates, is extremely susceptible to product loss due to contamination, equipment failure or improper installation or operation of equipment, vendor or operator error, inconsistency in yields, variability in product characteristics and difficulties in scaling the production process. Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. If microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in our product candidates or in the manufacturing facilities in which our product candidates are made, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination.
We and our contract manufacturers are subject to significant regulatory oversight with respect to manufacturing our products. The manufacturing facilities on which we rely may not continue to meet regulatory requirements and may have limited capacity.
All parties involved in the preparation of therapeutics for clinical trial or commercial sale are subject to extensive regulation. Components of a finished therapeutic product approved for commercial sale or used in late-stage clinical trials must be manufactured in accordance with GMP requirements. These regulations govern manufacturing processes and procedures (including recordkeeping) and the implementation and operation of quality systems to control and assure the quality of investigational products and products approved for sale. In addition, due to our use of transgenic animals to manufacture our product candidates, we, and potentially our third-party manufacturers, are subject to animal welfare requirements as part of our production process. The FDA, the USDA, and comparable foreign regulatory agencies may also implement new standards at any time, or change their interpretations and enforcement of existing standards, including for the manufacture, packaging or testing of biological products or for the care and welfare of research animals.
Poor control of production processes can lead to the introduction of adventitious agents or other contaminants, or to inadvertent changes in the properties or stability of our product candidates that may not be detectable in final product testing. We or our contract manufacturers must supply all necessary documentation in support of a NADA and BLA on a timely basis and must adhere to the FDA’s GMP requirements and USDA animal welfare requirements enforced by each agency through its respective facilities inspection program. Our facilities and quality systems and the facilities and quality systems of some or all of our third-party contractors must pass a
pre-approval
inspection for compliance with the applicable regulations as a condition of regulatory approval of our product candidates. In addition, the regulatory authorities may, at any time, audit or inspect a manufacturing facility involved with the preparation of our product candidates or the associated quality systems for compliance with the regulations applicable to the activities being conducted. If these facilities do not pass a
pre-approval
plant inspection, FDA approval of the products will not be granted.
The regulatory authorities also may, at any time following approval of a product for sale, audit our manufacturing facilities or those of our third-party manufacturers. If any such inspection or audit identifies a failure to comply with applicable regulations or if a violation of our product specifications or applicable regulations occurs independent of such an inspection or audit, we or the relevant regulatory authority may require remedial measures that may be costly and/or time-consuming for us or our third-party manufacturers to implement and that may include the temporary or permanent suspension of a clinical trial or commercial sales or the temporary or permanent closure of a manufacturing facility. Any such remedial measures imposed upon us or third parties with whom we contract could materially harm our business.
If we or any of our third-party manufacturers or testing contractors fail to maintain regulatory compliance, the FDA can impose regulatory sanctions including, among other things, warning or untitled letters, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure of regulatory authorities to grant marketing approvals, delays, suspension or
 
43

withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions. Such an occurrence may cause our business, financial condition and results of operations to be materially harmed.
The manufacturing facilities in which our product candidates are made could be adversely affected by equipment failures, labor shortages, natural disasters, power failures and numerous other factors.
We presently manufacture our product candidates at our lab facilities in South Dakota. If our lab facilities were to be damaged or destroyed by fire, flood, other natural disaster or other occurrences of any kind, it would have a material adverse effect on our ability to produce product candidates and on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We must comply with applicable current Good Manufacturing Practice, or cGMP, regulations and guidelines. We may encounter difficulties in achieving quality control and quality assurance and may experience shortages in qualified personnel. We are subject to inspections by regulatory authorities to confirm compliance with applicable regulatory requirements. Any failure to follow cGMP or other regulatory requirements or delay, interruption or other issues that arise in the manufacture, fill-finish, packaging, or storage of our product candidates as a result of a failure of our facilities or the facilities or operations of third parties to comply with regulatory requirements or pass any regulatory authority inspection could significantly impair our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates, leading to significant delays in the availability of therapeutic product for clinical studies or the termination or hold on a clinical study, or the delay or prevention of a filing or approval of marketing applications for our product candidates. Significant noncompliance could also result in the imposition of sanctions, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure of regulatory authorities to grant marketing approvals for our product candidates, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could damage our reputation. If we are not able to achieve and maintain regulatory compliance, we may not be permitted to market our product candidates and/or may be subject to product recalls, seizures, injunctions, or criminal prosecution.
Any adverse developments affecting manufacturing operations for our product candidates, if any are approved, may result in shipment delays, inventory shortages, lot failures, product withdrawals or recalls, or other interruptions in the supply of product candidates. We may also have to take inventory write-offs and incur other charges and expenses for products that fail to meet specifications, undertake costly remediation efforts or seek more costly manufacturing alternatives.
Our product candidates that have been produced and are stored for later use may degrade, become contaminated or suffer other quality defects, which may cause the affected product candidates to no longer be suitable for their intended use in clinical studies or other development activities. If the defective product candidates cannot be replaced in a timely fashion, we may incur significant delays in our development programs that could adversely affect the value of such product candidates.
Outbreaks of livestock diseases and other events affecting the health of our bovine herd can adversely impact our ability to conduct our operations and production of our product candidates.
Our product candidates are based on materials produced by genetically engineered bovines. We maintain a herd of approximately 200 genetically engineered production animals at a single location in South Dakota and a larger herd of recipient animals at other locations. Our ability to produce product candidates is dependent on the continued health and productivity of these animals. The supply of our product candidates can be adversely impacted by outbreaks of livestock diseases, which can have a significant adverse impact on our financial condition. Our animals produced by the recipient herd do not typically become productive until
15-18
months from the start of gestation. If all or a material number of the productive herd were to become diseased, injured or die as a result of bacterial, fungal or viral infections, such as foot and mouth disease, or natural disaster or other
 
44

occurrences of any kind, it would have a material adverse effect on our ability to produce product candidates and on our business, financial condition and results of operations
Extreme factors or forces beyond our control could negatively impact our business.
Natural disasters, fire, bioterrorism or other acts of terrorism or vandalism, animal activist activity or adverse public perception or media coverage or other public relations issues, pandemics or extreme weather, including droughts, floods, excessive cold or heat, hurricanes or other storms, could impair the health or growth of livestock or interfere with our operations due to power outages, fuel shortages, feed shortages, decrease in availability of water, damage to our production and manufacturing facilities or disruption of transportation channels which would delay the development, regulatory approval and manufacture of our product candidates and ultimately affect our success. Any of these factors could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and ability to operate.
Cyber-attacks or other failures in our telecommunications or information technology systems, or those of our collaborators, CROs, third-party logistics providers, distributors or other contractors or consultants, could result in information theft, data corruption and significant disruption of our business operations.
We, along with our collaborators, CROs, third-party logistics providers, distributors and other contractors and consultants, utilize information technology, or IT, systems and networks to process, transmit and store electronic information in connection with our business activities. As use of digital technologies has increased, cyber incidents, including third parties gaining access to employee accounts using stolen or inferred credentials, computer malware, viruses, spamming, phishing attacks or other means, and deliberate attacks and attempts to gain unauthorized access to computer systems and networks, have increased in frequency and sophistication. These threats pose a risk to the security of our, our collaborators’, CROs’, third-party logistics providers’, distributors’ and other contractors’ and consultants’ systems and networks, and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in preventing cyber-attacks or successfully mitigating their effects. Like other companies, we have on occasion experienced, and will continue to experience, threats to our data and systems, including malicious codes and viruses, phishing, business email compromise attacks or other cyber-attacks.
There can be no assurance that our collaborators, CROs, third-party logistics providers, distributors and other contractors and consultants will be successful in protecting our clinical and other data that is stored on their systems. Any cyber-attack, data breach or destruction or loss of data could result in a violation of applicable U.S. and international privacy, data protection and other laws and subject us to litigation and governmental investigations and proceedings by federal, state and local regulatory entities in the United States and by international regulatory entities, resulting in exposure to material civil and/or criminal liability. Further, our general liability insurance and corporate risk program may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed and may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects. In addition, we may suffer reputational harm or face litigation or adverse regulatory action as a result of cyber-attacks or other data security breaches and may incur significant additional expense to implement further data protection measures.
Collaborations with third parties may be important to our business. If these collaborations are not successful, our business could be adversely affected.
In addition to our current collaborations, we may in the future seek third-party collaborators for the development and commercialization of product candidates. If we enter into such collaborations, we will have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators will dedicate to the development or commercialization of our product candidates. Our ability to generate revenue from any future collaboration or license agreement will depend on the collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. In addition, any collaborators may have the right to abandon research or
 
45

development projects and terminate applicable agreements, including any funding obligations, prior to or upon the expiration of the agreed upon terms.
Any collaboration that we enter into in the future may pose a number of risks, including the following:
 
   
collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;
 
   
collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;
 
   
collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of any product candidates that achieve regulatory approval or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding, or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;
 
   
collaborators may decide not to continue the development of collaboration products and could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products or product candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;
 
   
a collaborator with marketing, distribution and commercialization rights to one or more of our product candidates that achieve regulatory approval may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of any such product candidate;
 
   
disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development of any product candidates, might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of such product candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to such product candidates, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive;
 
   
collaborations may be terminated at the convenience of the collaborator or for a material breach by either party, and, if a collaboration is terminated, we could be required to make payments to the collaborator or have our potential payments under the collaboration reduced; and
 
   
in the event of the termination of a collaboration, we could be required to raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the product candidates returned to us by our former collaborator.
Additionally, subject to its contractual obligations to us, if one of our collaborators is involved in a business combination, the collaborator might deemphasize or terminate the development or commercialization of any product candidate licensed to it by us. If one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may find it more difficult to attract new collaborators and our perception in the business and financial communities could be adversely affected.
We are party to a contracting agreement with the US federal government which could be subject to revision or termination at the discretion of the US federal government.
We are executing on an award agreement (Project Agreement No. 01;
MCDC1902-007)
with the U.S. federal Government (USG) that is structured as a cost reimbursement agreement that includes a defined scope and budget and represents the substantial majority of our revenues. The USG has the right to discontinue the agreement and wind-down or change the scope of the projects within the agreement. In the event the USG stops or alters the scope of the project, such action could have a material impact on our financial performance. Further, the agreement contains general purpose and limited purpose rights of USG, which include the sharing of certain types of information and a right to negotiate reasonable access to physical assets that have been funded by USG.
 
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We operate in a highly competitive industry.
We are engaged in highly competitive industries. We compete with many public and private companies, including pharmaceutical companies, chemical companies, specialized biotechnology companies and academic institutions. Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, scientific and technical resources, and manufacturing and marketing experience and capabilities than us. In addition, many of our competitors have significantly greater experience conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials of new pharmaceutical products, and in obtaining regulatory approvals for pharmaceutical products. Our competitors and competitors of our collaborators may develop and commercialize such products more rapidly than we and our collaborators do. Competition may increase further as a result of potential advances from the study of pharmaceutical products, and greater availability of capital for investment in this field. There can be no assurance that our competitors will not succeed in developing technologies and products that are more effective than any being developed by us or that would render our technology and products obsolete or noncompetitive. There can be no assurance that these and other efforts by potential competitors will not be successful, or that other methods will not be developed to compete with our technology. There are specific products and technologies that compete with current product pipeline and that may outperform or be more competitive than our products. For example, there are multiple animal-derived sources for ATG, that may be competitive with
SAB-142
for transplant such as Thymoglobulin (Sanofi Genzyme) and Atgam (Pfizer),
SAB-142
for T1D such as teplizumab (Provention), otelixizumab (Tolerx/GSK); there are industry standard human sources of IgG that may compete with
SAB-181
such as Hizentra (CSL Behring) and other commercially available human-derived IVIG’s; there are other antibody technologies that may compete with Our anti-influenza product,
SAB-176
such as
VIR-2482
(Vir),
DAS-181
(Ansun), VIS410 (Visterra),
FLU-IGIV
(Emergent Biosolutions); there are multiple
COVID-19
products that may compete with
SAB-185
such as
BRII-196/BRII-198
(Brii),
AZD-7442
(AstraZeneca),
LY-CoV555
(Eli Lilly/Abcellera),
BMS-986414/BMS-986413
(BMS/Rockefeller University),
VIR-7831
(Vir/GSK), REGEN-CoV (Regeneron),
ADG-20
(Adagio), GIGA-2050 (Grifols).
We have no sales and marketing experience.
We have no experience in sales, marketing or distribution. Before we can market any of our product candidates directly, we must develop a substantial marketing and sales force with technical expertise and supporting distribution capability. Alternatively, we may obtain the assistance of a pharmaceutical company with a large distribution system and a large direct sales force. We do not have any existing distribution arrangements with any pharmaceutical company for our products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to establish sales and distribution capabilities or be successful in gaining market acceptance for our products.
We are subject to stringent environmental regulation and potentially subject to environmental litigation, proceedings, and investigations.
Our business operations and use of real property are subject to stringent federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations pertaining to safe working conditions, ethical experimental use of animals, the discharge of materials into the environment, and the handling and disposition of wastes (including solid and hazardous wastes) or otherwise relating to protection of the environment. These laws include the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Toxic Test Substances Control Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Compliance with these laws and regulations, and the ability to comply with any modifications to these laws and regulations, is material to our business. New matters or sites may be identified in the future that will require additional investigation, assessment, or expenditures. In addition, some of our facilities have been in operation for some time and, over time, we and any other prior operators of these facilities may have generated and disposed of wastes that now may be considered hazardous. Future discovery of contamination of property underlying or in the vicinity of our present or former properties or manufacturing facilities and/or waste disposal sites could require us to incur additional expenses. In addition, claimants may sue us for injury or contamination that results from our use of or our handling of contaminants, and our liability may exceed our total assets. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations may be expensive, and current or future environmental
 
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regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. The occurrence of any of these events, the implementation of new laws and regulations, or stricter interpretation of existing laws or regulations, could adversely affect our financial condition and ability to operate.
If we or any contract manufacturers and suppliers we engage fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.
We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our research and development activities involve the use of biological and hazardous materials and produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials, which could cause an interruption of our commercialization efforts, research and development efforts and business operations, environmental damage resulting in costly
clean-up
and liabilities under applicable laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling and disposal of these materials and specified waste products. Although we believe that the safety procedures utilized by our third-party manufacturers for handling and disposing of these materials generally comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot guarantee that this is the case or eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In such an event, we may be held liable for any resulting damages and such liability could exceed our resources and state or federal or other applicable authorities may curtail our use of certain materials and/or interrupt our business operations. Furthermore, environmental laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent. We cannot predict the impact of such changes and cannot be certain of our future compliance. In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.
Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials or other work-related injuries, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not carry specific biological waste or hazardous waste insurance coverage, workers compensation or property and casualty and general liability insurance policies that include coverage for damages and fines arising from biological or hazardous waste exposure or contamination.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
Our success depends on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our technology.
Our success in large part depends on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our technology and other trade secrets. To do so, we must prosecute and maintain existing patents, obtain new patents and pursue trade secret and other intellectual property protection. We also must operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third-parties or allowing third-parties to infringe our rights. Patent issues relating to pharmaceuticals and biologics involve complex legal, scientific and factual questions. To date, no consistent policy has emerged regarding the breadth of biotechnology patent claims that are granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) or enforced by the federal courts. Therefore, we do not know whether any particular patent applications will result in the issuance of patents, or that any patents issued to us will provide us with any competitive advantage. We also cannot be sure that we will develop additional proprietary products that are patentable. Furthermore, there is a risk that others will independently develop or duplicate similar technology or products or circumvent the patents issued to us.
 
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Third parties may claim we infringe their intellectual property rights.
Our research, development and commercialization activities may be found to infringe patents owned by third-parties from whom we do not hold licenses or other rights to use their intellectual properties. There may be rights we are not aware of, including applications that have been filed, but not published that, when issued, could be asserted against us. These third-parties could bring claims against us, and that may cause us to incur substantial expenses and, if successful against us, could cause us to pay substantial damages. Further, if a patent infringement suit were brought against us, we could be forced to stop or delay research, development, manufacturing or sales of the product or product candidate that is the subject of the suit.
As a result of potential patent infringement claims, or in order to avoid potential claims, we may choose or be required to seek a license from the third-party. These licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, the license would likely obligate us to pay license fees or royalties or both, and the rights granted to us might be
non-exclusive,
which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property. Ultimately, we could be prevented from commercializing a product, or be forced to cease some aspect of our business operations, if, as a result of actual or threatened patent infringement claims, we are unable to enter into licenses on acceptable terms. All of the issues described above could also impact our collaborators, which would also impact the success of the collaboration and therefore us.
We may become involved in litigation to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our collaborators or licensors, which could be expensive and time-consuming.
Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our collaborators or licensors. As a result, we may be required to file suit to counter infringement for unauthorized use. This can be expensive, particularly for a company of our size, and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover our technology. An adverse determination of any litigation or defense proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our patent applications at the risk of not issuing.
Even if we are successful, litigation may result in substantial costs and distraction to our management. Even with a broad portfolio, we may not be able, alone or with our collaborators and licensors, to prevent misappropriation of our proprietary rights, particularly in countries where the laws may not protect such rights as fully as in the U.S.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, during the course of litigation, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If investors perceive these results to be negative, the market price for our common stock could be significantly harmed.
If patent laws or the interpretation of patent laws change, our competitors may be able to develop and commercialize our discoveries.
Important legal issues remain to be resolved as to the extent and scope of available patent protection for biopharmaceutical products and processes in the U.S. and other important markets outside the U.S., such as Europe and Japan. In addition, foreign markets may not provide the same level of patent protection as provided under the U.S. patent system. Litigation or administrative proceedings may be necessary to determine the validity and scope of certain of our and others’ proprietary rights. Any such litigation or proceeding may result in a significant commitment of resources in the future and could force us to do one or more of the following: cease selling or using any of our products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property, which would adversely affect our revenue; obtain a license from the holder of the intellectual property right alleged to have been
 
49

infringed, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all; and redesign our products to avoid infringing the intellectual property rights of third-parties, which may be time-consuming or impossible to do. In addition, changes in, or different interpretations of, patent laws in the U.S. and other countries may result in patent laws that allow others to use our discoveries or develop and commercialize our products. We cannot provide assurance that the patents we obtain or the unpatented technology we hold will afford us significant commercial protection.
We have third party collaborators that might claim rights in or to our technology and/or assets.
We have extensive experience collaborating with multiple parties in Government and industry, and has agreements and collaborations that allow potential claims and actual rights, such as shared publication rights, shared inventions, access to assets, potential claims of co-inventorship, limited rights to data, general purpose rights to data, and other claims that may affect our business operations, intellectual property portfolio, interruption of operating assets or our ability to protect our own rights. There can be no assurance that our competitors, suppliers, service providers, collaborators or other parties will not succeed in asserting rights that are or become contrary to our interests.
Changes in patent law in the United States and in
ex-U.S.
jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our products.
As is the case with other biopharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biopharmaceutical industry involve both technological and legal complexity, and is therefore costly, time-consuming and inherently uncertain. In addition, the United States has recently enacted and is currently implementing and proposing wide-ranging patent reform legislation. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the value of patents, once obtained. Depending on decisions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents, particularly those directed to pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical products and uses could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future. We cannot predict how these decisions or any future decisions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts or the USPTO may impact the value of our patents. Similarly, any adverse changes in the patent laws of other jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.
Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on product candidates in all countries throughout the world is expensive. While many of our licensed patents, including the patents covering our lead product candidates, have been issued in major markets and other countries, our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States can be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States where we have issued patents, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in other jurisdictions. Competitors may also use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we do not have patent protection or where we have patent protection but where enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products in and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent such competition.
Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not
 
50

favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical products, which could make it difficult for us or our licensors to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products against third parties in violation of our proprietary rights generally. The initiation of proceedings for infringement by third parties or by third parties to challenge the scope or validity of our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could also result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and any related patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us or our licensors. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate or are initiated against us and the damages or other remedies awarded in lawsuits that we initiate, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.
If we do not obtain patent term extension and data exclusivity for any product candidates we may develop, our business may be materially harmed.
Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of any FDA marketing approval of any product candidates we may develop, one or more of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Action of 1984, or Hatch-Waxman Amendments. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit a patent extension term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. A patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent per eligible drug may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, an approved method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Patent term extensions tied to marketing approval in foreign jurisdictions may also be available for our patents. However, we may not be granted an extension because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the applicable time period or the scope of patent protection afforded could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed.
If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.
Our trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names or may be forced to stop using these names, which we need for name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. If we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Being a Public Company
We incur increased costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with the laws and regulations affecting public companies, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
As a public company, we are and will continue to be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the listing standards of Nasdaq and other applicable securities rules and regulations. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems, and resources. For example, the Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file
 
51

annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. As a result of the complexity involved in complying with the rules and regulations applicable to public companies, our management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations, although we have already hired additional employees to assist us in complying with these requirements, we may need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants, which will increase our operating expenses.
In addition, changing laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs, and making some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest substantial resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations, and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from business operations to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations, and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.
We also expect that being a public company and these new rules and regulations will make it increasingly expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.
As a result of disclosure of information in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition are more visible, which may result in an increased risk of threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and our election to comply with the reduced disclosure requirements as a public company may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
For so long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including not being required to comply with the independent auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes-Oxley Act), reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, being required to provide fewer years of audited financial statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a
non-binding
advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We may lose our emerging growth company status and become subject to the SEC’s internal control over financial reporting management and auditor attestation requirements. If we are unable to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls, or if our internal controls have a material weakness, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of confidence by stockholders, which could harm our business and adversely affect the market price of our common stock. We will cease to be an “emerging growth company” upon the earliest to occur of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a large accelerated filer, with at least $700 million of equity securities held by
non-affiliates;
(iii) the
 
52

date on which we have, in any three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in
non-convertible
debt securities; and (iv) December 31, 2026 (the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of becoming a public company).
As an emerging growth company, we may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced reporting burdens. Accordingly, the information we provide to our stockholders may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock. In addition, the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We have elected to take advantage of this extended transition period under the JOBS Act. As a result, our operating results and financial statements may not be comparable to the operating results and financial statements of other companies who have adopted the new or revised accounting standards. It is possible that some investors will find our common stock less attractive as a result, which may result in a less active trading market for our common stock and higher volatility in our stock price.
Investors may find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile and may decline.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations of the applicable listing standards of Nasdaq. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly and place significant strain on our personnel, systems and resources.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we will file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal control over financial reporting, which includes hiring additional accounting and financial personnel to implement such processes and controls. In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended, and anticipate that we will continue to expend, significant resources, including accounting-related costs and significant management oversight. If any of these new or improved controls and systems do not perform as expected, we may experience material weaknesses in our controls.
Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. Further, weaknesses in our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we will eventually be required to include in our periodic reports that will be filed with the SEC.
 
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Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, we may not be able to remain listed on Nasdaq. We are not currently required to comply with the SEC rules that implement Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and are therefore not required to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for that purpose. As a public company, we will be required to provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting commencing with our Form
10-K.
Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until after we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations and could cause a decline in the price of our common stock.
Our warrants are accounted for as liabilities and changes in value of the warrants could have a material effect on our financial results.
Prior to the Business Combination, on April 12, 2021, the staff of the SEC issued a Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”) (the “SEC Staff Statement”). The SEC Staff Statement focused on certain accounting and reporting considerations related to warrants of a kind similar to warrants that we issued prior to the Business Combination at the time of our initial public offering and the exercises by the underwriters of their over-allotment options in January 2021. In response to the SEC Staff Statement we determined to classify the warrants as derivative liabilities measured at fair value, with the initial valuation occurring on October 22, 2021, the “Closing Date” of the Business Combination, with changes in fair value each period reported in earnings.
As a result, included on our balance sheet are derivative liabilities related to embedded features contained within the warrants. Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”)
815-40,
Derivatives and Hedging — Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity provides for the remeasurement of the fair value of such derivatives at each balance sheet date, with a resulting
non-cash
gain or loss related to the change in the fair value being recognized in earnings in the statement of income. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, our financial statements and results of operations may fluctuate quarterly based on factors which are outside of our control. Due to the recurring fair value measurement, we expect that we will recognize
non-cash
gains or losses on the warrants each reporting period and that the amount of such gains or losses could be material.
Our business, financial condition, and results of operations may fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which may result in a decline in our stock price if such fluctuations result in a failure to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors.
Our operating results have in the past and could in the future vary significantly from
quarter-to-quarter
and
year-to-year
and may fail to match our past performance, our projections or the expectations of securities analysts because of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control and, as a result, should not be relied upon as an indicator of future performance. As a result, we may not be able to accurately forecast our operating results and growth rate. Any of these events could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate. Factors that may contribute to the variability of our operating results include, but are not limited to: our ability to attract new clients and partners, retain existing clients and partners and maximize engagement and enrollment with existing and future clients; changes in our sales and implementation cycles, especially in the case of our large clients; new solution introductions and expansions, or challenges with such introductions;
 
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changes in our pricing or fee policies or those of our competitors; the timing and success of new solution introductions by us or our competitors or announcements by competitors or other third parties of significant new products or acquisitions or entrance into certain markets; any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors; increases in operating expenses that we may incur to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive; our ability to successfully expand our business, whether domestically or internationally; breaches of security or privacy; changes in stock-based compensation expenses; the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the expansion of our business; adverse litigation judgments, settlements, or other litigation-related costs; changes in the legislative or regulatory environment, including with respect to privacy or data protection, or enforcement by government regulators, including fines, orders, or consent decrees; the cost and potential outcomes of ongoing or future regulatory investigations or examinations, or of future litigation; changes in our effective tax rate; our ability to make accurate accounting estimates and appropriately recognize revenue for our solutions for which there are no relevant comparable products; changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations, or principles; instability in the financial markets; general economic conditions, both domestic and international; volatility in the global financial markets; political, economic, and social instability, including terrorist activities and health epidemics (including the recent outbreak of
COVID-19),
and any disruption these events may cause to the global economy; and changes in business or macroeconomic conditions. The impact of one or more of the foregoing or other factors may cause our operating results to vary significantly.
Changes in accounting principles may cause previously unanticipated fluctuations in our financial results, and the implementation of such changes may impact our ability to meet our financial reporting obligations.
We prepare our financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“U.S. GAAP”), which are subject to interpretation or changes by the FASB, the SEC, and other various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. New accounting pronouncements and changes in accounting principles have occurred in the past and are expected to occur in the future which may have a significant effect on our financial results. Furthermore, any difficulties in implementation of changes in accounting principles, including the ability to modify our accounting systems, could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and our key metrics require management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes and amounts reported in our key metrics. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to allowance for doubtful accounts, assessment of the useful life and recoverability of long-lived assets, fair value of guarantees included in revenue arrangements and fair values of stock-based awards, warrants, contingent consideration, and income taxes. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our common stock.
 
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Risks Related to our Common Stock
The market price of our securities may be volatile, which could cause the value of any investment in our securities to decline.
The price of our securities may fluctuate significantly due to general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for our securities may not develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. In addition, fluctuations in the price of our securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. Even if an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on an investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline. Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include, but are not solely limited to, the risk factors identified herein.
In addition, the stock market in general, and Nasdaq and biopharmaceutical companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. This type of litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which would harm our business, operating results or financial condition.
An investment in our common stock is extremely speculative and there can be no assurance of any return on any such investment.
An investment in our common stock is extremely speculative and there is no assurance that investors will obtain any return on their investment. Investors will be subject to substantial risks involved in an investment in us, including the risk of losing their entire investment.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
If Nasdaq delists our securities from trading on its exchange for failure to meet their continued listing standards, we and our stockholders could face significant negative consequences including:
 
   
limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
 
   
a determination that our common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in our securities to adhere to more stringent rules;
 
   
possibly resulting in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for shares of our common stock;
 
   
a limited amount of analyst coverage; and
 
   
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.
Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, investors may not receive any return on their investment unless they sell their common stock for a price greater than the price paid.
We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends as a public company in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other
 
56

things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. As a result, investors may not receive any return on an investment in our common stock unless they sell the common stock for a price greater than the price paid.
Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, investors may not receive any return on their investment unless they sell their common stock for a price greater than the price paid.
We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends as a public company in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. As a result, investors may not receive any return on an investment in our common stock unless they sell the common stock for a price greater than the price paid.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock. Sales of significant number of shares of our common stock may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that it deems reasonable or appropriate, and make it more difficult for you to sell shares of our common stock. Certain holders of our securities are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of the shares of our common stock under the Securities Act. Any sales of securities by these stockholders could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.
Future sales and issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase common stock, including pursuant to our equity plans, could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall.
We expect that significant additional capital may be needed in the future to continue our planned operations, including conducting clinical trials, commercialization efforts, expanded research and development activities and costs associated with operating as a public company. To raise capital, we may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner it determines from time to time. We may also sell our common stock as part of entering into strategic alliances, creating joint ventures or collaborations or entering into additional licensing arrangements with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our development and commercialization efforts. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. Such sales may also result in material dilution to existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights, preferences and privileges senior to the holders of our common stock.
Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.
Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to reasonably assure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be
 
57

circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements or insufficient disclosures due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock. Sales of significant number of shares of our common stock may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that it deems reasonable or appropriate, and make it more difficult for you to sell shares of our common stock. Certain holders of our securities are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of the shares of our common stock under the Securities Act. Any sales of securities by these stockholders could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.
Future sales and issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase common stock, including pursuant to our equity plans, could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall.
We expect that significant additional capital may be needed in the future to continue our planned operations, including conducting clinical trials, commercialization efforts, expanded research and development activities and costs associated with operating as a public company. To raise capital, we may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner it determines from time to time. We may also sell our common stock as part of entering into strategic alliances, creating joint ventures or collaborations or entering into additional licensing arrangements with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our development and commercialization efforts. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. Such sales may also result in material dilution to existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights, preferences and privileges senior to the holders of our common stock.
Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.
Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to reasonably assure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements or insufficient disclosures due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
Anti-takeover provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.
Our certificate of incorporation contains provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. We are also subject to anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together these provisions may make more
 
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difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities. These provisions include:
 
   
the right of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and to fix the terms of such shares;
 
   
no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
 
   
a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;
 
   
the right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director in certain circumstances, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;
 
   
a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders; and
 
   
requirement that a meeting of stockholders may only be called by members of our board of directors and the ability of our stockholders to call a special meeting is specifically denied, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors. These provisions, alone or together, could delay hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our board of directors and management.
As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the DGCL, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of outstanding our common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our common stock. Any provision of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
Risks Related to Capital Markets
Unstable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and stock price.
The global credit and financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruptions in the past, most recently as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic. These disruptions can result in severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates and uncertainty about economic stability. There can be no assurance that further deterioration in credit and financial markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturn, volatile business environment or continued unpredictable and unstable market conditions. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our operations, growth strategy, financial performance and stock price and could require it to delay or abandon clinical development plans. In addition, there is a risk that one or more of our current service providers may not survive an economic downturn, which could directly affect our ability to attain our operating goals on schedule and on budget.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or publish negative reports, the market price of our common stock could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If regular publication of research reports ceases, we could
 
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lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume of our common stock to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or if reporting results do not meet their expectations, the market price of our securities could decline.
Reports published by analysts, including projections in those reports that differ from our actual results, could adversely affect the price and trading volume of our common stock.
Securities research analysts may establish and publish their own periodic projections for us. These projections may vary widely and may not accurately predict the results we actually achieve. The price of our common stock may decline if our actual results do not match the projections of these securities research analysts. Similarly, if one or more of the analysts who write reports on us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, the price or the trading volume of our common stock could decline.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our securities may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
Risks Related to Financing and Tax
We may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, advance or begin clinical trial and research initiatives, enhance our operating infrastructure, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. In order to achieve these objectives, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters. In addition, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.
Changes in legislation in U.S. and foreign taxation of international business activities or the adoption of other tax reform policies, as well as the application of such laws, could adversely impact our financial position and operating results.
As we expand the scale of our business activities, any changes in the U.S. or foreign taxation of such activities may increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. For example, the Biden administration has proposed changes to federal income tax laws that would, among other things, impose a 15% minimum tax on corporate book income for certain taxpayers and strengthen the global intangible
low-taxed
income regime imposed by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 while eliminating related tax exemptions. The impact of future changes to U.S. and foreign tax law on our business is uncertain and could be adverse, and we will continue to monitor and assess the impact of any such changes.
 
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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
Certain industry data and market data included in this prospectus were obtained from independent third-party surveys, market research, publicly available information, reports of governmental agencies and industry publications and surveys. All of management’s estimates presented herein are based upon management’s review of independent third-party surveys and industry publications prepared by a number of sources and other publicly available information. All of the market data used in this prospectus involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. We believe that the information from these industry publications and surveys included in this prospectus is reliable. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “
Risk Factors.
” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the shares of Common Stock offered by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the selling securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $68.5 million from the exercise of the Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants, if any, for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants. There is no assurance that the holders of the Warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such Warrants. To the extent that the Warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Warrants will decrease.
DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE
The offering price of the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants offered hereby is determined by reference to the exercise price of the Warrants of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as described herein.
We cannot currently determine the price or prices at which shares of Common Stock may be sold by the selling securityholders under this prospectus. Our Common Stock is listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “SABS.” Our Public Warrants are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “SABSW.”
 
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MARKET INFORMATION FOR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Market Information
Our Common Stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbols “SABS” and “SABSW,” respectively. Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, BCYP’s common Stock and warrants were listed on Nasdaq under the symbols “BCYP” and “BCYPW,” respectively. As of March 25, 2022, there were 202 holders of record of our Common Stock and 2 holders of our Warrants, which excludes holders of our Common Stock and Warrants held in “street name.”
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any dividends on shares of Common Stock. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors. It is the present intention of our board of directors to retain all earnings, if any, for use in our business operations and, accordingly, our board of directors does not anticipate declaring any dividends in the foreseeable future. Further, if we incur any indebtedness, our ability to declare dividends may be limited by restrictive covenants we may agree to in connection therewith.
 
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BUSINESS
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of powerful and proprietary immunotherapeutic polyclonal human antibodies to treat and prevent infectious diseases and immune an autoimmune disorders, including infectious diseases resulting from outbreaks and pandemics such as the
COVID-19
pandemic and respiratory diseases that have a more significant impact on the immune compromised population. Using private resources and more than $200 million of funds awarded from the U.S. Government emerging disease and medical countermeasures programs since September 2019, we have developed a novel drug development platform, that we refer to as our DiversitAb platform. This platform is based on the power of the human immune system and has the unique capability to generate large quantities of specifically targeted, high-potency, fully-human natural polyclonal antibodies without the need for convalescent plasma or human donors. Over a span of two decades, our founding scientists have refined, optimized, and advanced genetic engineering and antibody science to develop transchromosomic cattle (which we refer to as Tc Bovine) that produce fully-human antibodies. These Tc Bovine form a key component of our versatile DiversitAb platform.
We are leveraging our DiversitAb platform to discover and develop product candidates with the potential to be
first-in-class
against novel targets or
best-in-class
against known, complex targets that treat diseases with significant unmet medical needs, including infectious and respiratory diseases, immune and autoimmune disorders, and oncology.
Recent Milestones
Since September 2019, we achieved multiple milestones, including:
 
   
Established
proof-of-concept
for our DiversitAb platform.
 
   
Fully enrolled Phase 2a challenge study for
SAB-176
in adults infected with influenza virus.
 
   
Advanced to Phase 3 of
NIH-Sponsored
ACTIV-2
Trial based upon DSMB at interim analysis for
SAB-185
(COVID-19)
and reached 50% enrollment.
 
   
Announced topline data demonstrating
SAB-176
met its primary endpoint in our Phase 2a challenge study in adults infected with influenza virus.
 
   
Announced that recent data demonstrated that
SAB-185
retains neutralization activity against the Omicron
SARS-CoV-2
in an in vitro pseudovirus model.
 
   
Reported positive topline Phase 2 virology data demonstrating
SAB-185
met Criteria for advancement to Phase 3.
Proprietary DiversitAb Platform
Our proprietary DiversitAb platform gives us the unique ability to generate targeted, fully-human, polyclonal antibodies without the need for human donors or serum. These diverse and high potency antibodies can be targeted to viruses, bacteria, toxins, and human immunogen targets. The current platform relies on advanced genetic engineering that functionally replaces bovine antibodies with human antibodies (resulting in our Tc Bovine) produced from the full germ-line repertoire of human antibody heavy chain and kappa light chain genes on an engineered human artificial chromosome. The human antibody genes have been further engineered to efficiently produce a diverse repertoire of human immunoglobulin G (which is referred to as IgG) in bovine
B-cells
in response to specifically targeted immunogens as a result of the hyperimmunization of the Tc Bovine. Bovine were selected because they are large animals that produce large amounts of plasma with high concentrations of antibodies and respond effectively to immunogen challenge by producing high potency, high avidity polyclonal antibodies.
 
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The novel capability of the DiversitAb platform in harnessing the natural human biological immune response makes our platform well-suited to address multiple therapeutic categories, presenting potential opportunities for new therapies to address unmet medical needs.
The following graphic depicts the main elements of product development and manufacturing using our DiversitAb platform:
 
LOGO
Through our DiversitAb platform, we have engineered a systematic therapeutic engine that emulates the way that nature synergistically targets the complexity of human disease. The discovery, development and production process represent a
“plug-and-play”
approach:
 
   
Develop Immunogen for Disease Target
. An immunogen is developed for a specific target. The platform is designed to address virtually any target including bacteria (whole killed), viruses, toxins, plasmid DNA, cells, and human tissues.
 
   
Hyperimmunize Tc Bovine
. Tc Bovine are genetically engineered to produce fully-human antibodies, and then hyperimmunized with the immunogen, driving the immune response beyond protective levels.
 
   
Collect Plasma
. The target specific human antibodies are collected from the Tc Bovine as plasma donations.
 
   
Isolate Human Antibodies
. Human antibodies are then isolated from the plasma through a plasma fractionation process and tested per established protocols. These antibodies are then ready for use as a human immunotherapy treatment or prophylactic.
Our DiversitAb platform is replicable and scalable. We believe that targeted human antibodies can be produced to counteract the same immunogen or multiple immunogens in as many Tc Bovine as necessary to generate sufficient doses of any target product. We can scale manufacturing by adding more Tc Bovine that are hyperimmunized to produce more plasma. Downstream processing primarily involves plasma fractionation to purify human IgG from all other plasma proteins to meet product specifications. Consistency of product is achieved by testing the potency of antibodies contained in each plasma collection and then combining plasma collections in a manufacturing pool that generates specified potencies within a specified antibody protein concentration.
We believe that the speed with which we can deploy our DiversitAb platform to develop countermeasures for emerging diseases and pandemics represents a significant advantage relative to other antibody manufacturers. We have successfully utilized our DiversitAb platform technology to generate early
proof-of-concept
and initial clinical lots that address specified immunotherapy targets in as little as 90 days, including completion of
IND-enabling
studies, in response to the emerging
COVID-19
pandemic.
We have vertically integrated the platform technology across a significant series of value inflection points. Our capabilities include advanced animal reproduction methods (cloning) to produce Tc Bovine, animal husbandry,
 
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immunogen development, plasma collection, plasma purification, drug substance manufacturing and product fill/finish, nonclinical and clinical study management, quality assurance, quality control, regulatory compliance, and program collaboration. We have built a broad-based network of third-party collaborators, service providers, vendors, consultants, and government partners that can help support each of these vertically integrated activities.
Three-Pronged Business Strategy
Our strategy for product development relies on three distinct approaches which utilize our DiversitAb platform to develop product candidates:
 
   
Government Funded Programs
 
   
Partner Collaborations
 
   
Proprietary Pipeline Programs
Government Funded Programs
We are leveraging our relationships with various government agencies to advance programs using our DiversitAb platform. Our government funded programs have resulted in the advancement of our Rapid Response Antibody Program as well as the rapid advancement of our
SAB-185
program from preclinical through our participation in the Phase 3 arm of the
ACTIV-2
master protocol.
Rapid Response Antibody Program
Since our founding in 2014, we have employed our DiversitAb platform to complete
pre-clinical
development of a dozen new products under a rapid timeline. Through commercial and government collaborations, we have produced new products from target identification through completion of
IND-enabling
studies in as little as 90 days. This timeline includes product concept, identifying and producing an immunogen, hyperimmunization of Tc Bovine, collection of plasma, purification of antibodies and initial potency assays to qualify the product candidate. We continue to innovate and vertically integrate workstreams to discover and develop products. Through a replicable combination of complex proprietary engineering and industry standard purification processes, we have demonstrated the ability to produce effective, high potency human polyclonal antibodies for a variety of targets. In response to the
COVID-19
pandemic and the need for an effective therapeutic, we were able to advance
SAB-185
from immunogen to the clinic in 128 days.
Our current agreement with Joint Program Executive Office-Enabling Biotechnologies
(JPEO-EB)
within the Department of Defense (DOD) was specifically directed to rapidly develop a medical countermeasure to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
(SARS-CoV-2),
the result of which became
SAB-185.
The initial agreement was designed as a staged escalation of our Rapid Response Antibody Program to known and unknown targets. This initial scope, including additional funding support through the Defense Health Authority (DHA) and Biomedical Advancement Research and Development Authority (BARDA), and inclusion in the Countermeasures Acceleration Group (formerly Operation Warp Speed), was expanded to include
SARS-CoV-2.
As a result of our
COVID-19
pandemic response, we successfully demonstrated our Rapid Response Antibody Program.
The work we have completed to date has also resulted in significant increases in production capacity and accelerated advancement of our capability to provide a readiness system at scale. We continue work on the Rapid Response Antibody Program and completing the framework for a vertically integrated product development system that manages products from discovery through licensure and commercial manufacturing on an accelerated timeline.
 
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SAB-185
(anti-SARS-CoV-2)
Program
(COVID-19)
SAB-185
is a fully-human, specifically targeted, highly potent, and broadly neutralizing human polyclonal antibody therapeutic candidate for
COVID-19.
SAB-185,
generated from the full-length spike protein of the
SARS-CoV-2
Wuhan strain, has shown neutralization of the Munich, Washington, South African, Delta, Lambda, and other variant strains in preclinical and nonclinical studies. In addition, recent data has demonstrated that
SAB-185
retains neutralization activity against the Omicron
SARS-CoV-2
in an in vitro pseudovirus model. Preclinical data has shown
SAB-185
to be significantly more potent than human-derived
COVID-19
convalescent IgG. We have completed multiple clinical and nonclinical studies to date, including a Phase 1 trial in healthy volunteers, and a Phase1b and Phase 2 clinical trial, both in
COVID-19
patients.
SAB-185
was being assessed in Phase 3 clinical trial as part of the
ACTIV-2
master protocol, sponsored, funded and conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (the NIH) in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). On February 28, 2022, the NIH decided to discontinue the
ACTIV-2
program after determining that the decrease in hospitalizations resulted in operational futility and made it impossible to demonstrate statistically significant clinical efficacy with the existing study design.
We have advanced
SAB-185
in collaboration with the U.S. Government, as part of the Countermeasures Acceleration Group, formerly Operation Warp Speed. We filed the IND application, produced the initial clinical doses and entered the Phase 1 clinical trial in just 128 days from the program initiation.
SAB-185
was designed and developed without the need for human convalescent plasma or human
B-cell
donations.
We continue to work with multiple U.S government collaborators to evaluate a number of options for the continued evaluation and testing of
SAB-185,
including advanced clinical development, targeting specialized populations, such as immune compromised, and alternate routes of administration.
In addition, we intend to use the data from the Phase 3 portion of the
ACTIV-2
program to help focus the continuing
SAB-185
program. We expect the full data readout for the Phase 2 NIH
ACTIV-2
trial to be available
Mid-2022.
Partner Collaborations
We are pursuing a number of potential partner collaborations and license agreements for the development of product candidates with the potential to create
first-in-class
or
best-in-class
treatments. We expect that our partner collaborations will service two distinct channels: our discovery program to identify targets which can be commercialized solely by our partners and through joint development collaborations which leverage our technology and a potential partner’s resources to rapidly
co-develop
therapies based on novel targets developed using our DiversitAb platform.
 
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Advantages of Polyclonal Antibodies
While we can produce monoclonal antibodies when desirable, we believe that our human polyclonal antibodies have several advantages over certain monoclonal antibodies.
 
LOGO
A study was conducted in 2014 to demonstrate how Tc Bovine derived human polyclonal antibodies interacted with cellular immunity as compared with monoclonal antibodies. The data shown below demonstrated the ability of an anti-Ebola Tc Bovine-produced human polyclonal antibody product candidate to activate viable human effector cells as compared to monoclonal antibodies and negative controls. In this study, micro-beads coated with Ebola glycoprotein were cultured with human monocytes, neutrophils, and Natural Killer cells in the presence of test agents.
 
LOGO
 
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In the graphic above, the lines with solid black and white circles represent monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis in Figure A and B and Natural Killer cell degranulation in Figure C from the serum of two Tc Bovines hyperimmunized with Ebola glycoprotein on eight occasions. The blue and purple bars represent two Tc Bovine human polyclonal antibody lots produced from their plasma after the third and fourth immunizations and from the sixth, seventh and eighth immunizations respectively. The red and white bars represent a naïve Tc Bovine human polyclonal antibody and normal saline respectively. The green and orange bars represent two anti-Ebola glycoprotein monoclonals. As can be seen, both lots of anti-Ebola Tc Bovine human polyclonal antibodies demonstrated the ability to induce monocyte and neutrophil cell phagocytosis and Natural Killer cell degranulation. The lot produced from plasma after the sixth to the eighth immunization had better activity and is consistent with avidity maturation of the polyclonal antibodies. In contrast, while the monoclonals induced monocyte phagocytosis, only one was able to induce neutrophil phagocytosis. And critically, neither monoclonal antibody had the ability to induce Natural Killer cell degranulation. This indicates that Tc Bovine-produced human polyclonal antibodies induce human effector cells which are critically important to the control of viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
Advantages of our Polyclonal Antibody Approach
Our novel multivalent polyclonal approach, including hyperimmunization of the Tc Bovine results in specifically targeted, highly potent, high avidity, broadly diverse, fully human polyclonal antibodies, overcoming the challenges and exceeding the capabilities of traditional animal and human-derived polyclonal antibodies.
 
   
Animal-derived polyclonal antibodies, such as from horses or rabbits, have the disadvantage of being immunogenic in humans and they often cause severe hypersensitivity reactions limiting their clinical use or reuse as animal antibodies.
 
   
Human-derived polyclonal antibodies are limited by the difficulty of collecting from humans and the inability of humans to produce antibodies to endogenous proteins under normal circumstances. Therefore, there is a significant potential advantage of Tc Bovine-produced human polyclonals in their ability to bind to both foreign exogenous or human endogenous protein targets, activate human effector cells, and not cause hypersensitivity reactions.
 
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Initial Preclinical Studies and Variant Resistance
 
LOGO
This table provides an overview of our in vivo animal data from 2008 to 2018 that has enabled several
pre-clinical
studies with efficacy data demonstrating the broad potential of the DiversitAb platform to address diverse human diseases, globally. As shown in the table, infectious disease has been a strategic proving ground for the validation of our platform. Listed above are several significant human diseases for which adequate countermeasures may not exist. These include Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika, among others. We have completed preclinical development for multiple potential infectious disease products to address these global emerging human biothreats, and we have repeatedly demonstrated 100% preclinical efficacy in several animal models for most targets. This consistent in vivo efficacy demonstrates the broad potential of the platform and has ultimately led to the clinical advancement of multiple Phase 1 clinical trials including MERS-CoV, and our advanced infectious disease pipeline products,
SAB-176
and
SAB-185.
 
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We have also demonstrated preclinical efficacy as both a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment. In a study conducted in 2017, we produced a fully-human polyclonal antibody,
SAB-131,
against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE). VEE is both a potential pandemic and biothreat pathogen for which we believe counter measures to be seriously lacking. Three cohorts of mice were challenged with a lethal dose of VEE. In contrast to the control group (black lines) all mice treated prophylactically or therapeutically with
SAB-131
survived with no to minimal weight loss, indicative of minimal clinical symptoms. Additionally, images of the brain of each cohort demonstrate that
SAB-131
can prevent or reduce viral encephalitis, which is a natural progression of the disease for this pathogen. This is visible by the reduction of signal intensity or viral load in the brain between the control group and the prophylactic and therapeutic treated groups. This suggests that these antibodies can protect against neurological pathogens and potentially address unmet neurological diseases in humans.
 
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Another potential therapeutic advantage of our polyclonal antibodies is their ability to effectively neutralize highly mutating pathogens such as Hantaan viruses. A study conducted in 2019 demonstrated
SAB-159,
an anti-Hantaan polyclonal antibody, completely neutralized the original wild-type virus, as well as both single mutants, and a double mutant of Hantaan virus. Effective neutralizing potency is indicated by the low in vitro IC50 threshold concentration below 100ng/mL indicated by the small grey area at the bottom of the graph. In contrast, two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies alone or in combination could not completely neutralize the three different mutant strains.
Initial Preclinical Toxicology
(SAB-301
Anti-Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus)
We tested proprietary Tc Bovine-derived human polyclonal antibodies
(SAB-301
Anti-MERS-CoV) to confirm that they were safe and tolerable in a preclinical toxicology study conducted in 2016.
The objectives of this study were to (i) determine potential toxic effects and target organs of toxicity, (ii) identify a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of
SAB-301
in New Zealand White male and female rabbits after a single intravenous dose administration and (iii) determine the toxicokinetic parameters and immunogenicity after single dose administrations. We may use information from this study to design subsequent toxicity studies and to determine the suitability of the proposed human dose.
In this study, male and female New Zealand White rabbits were given a single intravenous infusion of
SAB-301
over 30 minutes at 50 mg/kg (600 mg/m2, Group 2) or at 370 mg/kg (4440 mg/m2, Group 3) on Day 1. The concentration of the dose formulation was constant (37.29 mg/ml) while dose volume varied for the treated groups. A control group was given vehicle (10 mM glutamic acid monosodium salt, 262 mM
D-sorbitol,
0.05 mg/ml Tween 80, pH 5.5) at a volume (9.9 ml/kg) equivalent to that of the high dose group. The following parameters were evaluated: mortality/morbidity, clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, serum chemistry and coagulation), urinalysis, gross necropsy, histopathology, toxicokinetic analysis and immunogenicity.
All animals survived and no drug-related effects were observed for clinical observations, ophthalmology, food consumption, body weight, hematology and coagulation parameters, gross necropsy findings or histopathology.
Increases of
2-
and
3.9-fold
in globulin (GLO) were observed in males treated with
SAB-301
at 50 and 370 mg/kg, respectively, compared with the controls on Day 3. GLO levels were also increased,
1.4-
and
4.4-fold,
respectively in the females in the 50 and 370 mg/kg groups, compared with the controls. Correlatively, the albumin to GLO ratio (ALB/GLO) was decreased, while total protein (TPR) was increased in these animals. By Day 50, the GLO, ALB/GLO ratio and TPR returned to normal. These changes are simply an increase in total globulin due to the intravenous injection of
SAB-301,
a human polyclonal antibody, into the blood stream. The analytical assays used to measure total globulin and protein in clinical chemistry cannot distinguish between endogenous protein and injected antibodies. In fact, bioanalysis showed that there were significant amounts of
SAB-301
in serum on Day 4 in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, this response is not considered an adverse effect of
SAB-301,
but is simply the increased presence of globulin in the blood stream after the administration of the test article.
Toxicokinetic analysis was performed on the measurable serum concentrations of
SAB-301
in male and female rabbits after an intravenous infusion at dose levels of 50 and 370 mg/kg. There were
non-linear
increments in Cmax and AUCinf with a dose increase from 50 to 370 mg/kg. Mean apparent V values (33.4 to 80.6 ml/kg) indicate distribution of
SAB-301
primarily in the vascular compartment. Females had a 60% greater exposure of
SAB-301
at the higher dose (370 mg/kg), possibly due to a slower clearance rate in this group and formation of antibodies to
SAB-301
in males.
In conclusion, a single intravenous infusion of
SAB-301
over 30 minutes to male and female New Zealand White rabbits did not produce overt adverse effects and did not have any target organs of toxicity. Therefore, the
 
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maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of
SAB-301
was not determined but we believe it to be greater than 370 mg/kg (4440 mg/m2) for a single intravenous dose administration in rabbits. The NOAEL of
SAB-301
is considered to be at least 370 mg/kg (4440 mg/m2) for a single intravenous dose administration in rabbits.
First-in-Man
Clinical Safety and Efficacy
The
first-in-man
clinical trial of
SAB-301for
MERS-CoV, conducted in 2017 and sponsored by the NIH, evaluated safety of this Tc Bovine-derived human polyclonal. The study was a blinded, placebo controlled, ascending dose study in healthy adults that investigated doses of 1.5 mg/kg to 50 mg/kg of intravenously administered product in 38 participants that were followed for 90 days post-infusion. The conclusion was that
SAB-301
was safe and well tolerated. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated a half-life of the anti-MERS-CoV human polyclonal antibodies of 28 1/2 days, which is the reported half-life of human-derived IgG antibodies in humans.
Importantly, anti-drug antibodies, or antibodies to ligands used in our DiversitAb purification process, or anti-bovine plasma protein antibodies were not detected.
 
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Another clinical study conducted in 2017 at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, showed an initial indication of efficacy in Tc Bovine-derived anti-Mycoplasma human polyclonal antibodies in an immunosuppressed
68-year-old
man diagnosed with a M. hominis septic polyarthritis who developed a chronically draining right hip fistula following a failed hip replacement surgery. The fistula is shown on the lower left above. He was treated with human-derived intravenous immunoglobulin and antibiotics for seven years during which time the mycoplasma became multi-antibiotic resistant. At the request of the patient and his physician, we produced the anti-mycoplasma human polyclonal therapeutic which was intravenously administered to the subject at doses up to 100 mg/kg as shown in the center table above. This was done under an FDA allowed Phase 1b study. The human polyclonal antibody product was well tolerated, and the subject’s mycoplasma load fell to undetectable levels with rapid healing and closure of the fistula as shown on the lower right.
The patient then elected to undergo a repeat hip replacement surgery and he developed a Staphylococcus Aureus and other bacteria wound infection including mycoplasma. The patient was then
re-treated
with the Tc Bovine-derived human polyclonal antibodies which resulted in marked reductions in mycoplasma load as shown in the center table. This remarkable case study demonstrates the potential utility of Tc Bovine-derived human polyclonal antibodies to treat serious antibiotic resistant infections in general, but also the potential opportunity
 
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to produce specific human polyclonal antibody therapeutics to treat individuals with intractable infections using a personalized medicine approach.
Pipeline Programs
We are leveraging our DiversitAb platform to advance a robust pipeline of differentiated antibody-based therapies for the treatment of infectious diseases and immune system disorders. We are focused on developing, with partners or on our own, product candidates where we believe a differentiated human polyclonal approach has the greatest potential to be either
first-in-class
against novel targets or
best-in-class
against known, but complex, targets to treat diseases with significant unmet medical needs, including infectious diseases such as
COVID-19
and influenza, immune system disorders, including T1D, organ transplantation and early discovery oncology.
We believe route of administration is also an important component of the ability to access specific markets. While we are currently testing our lead programs using intravenous administration, we are pursuing the development of alternate routes of administration as an expansion of our market reach. These include intramuscular and other administration methods.
The following summarizes the status of the therapeutic candidates in our current pipeline:
 
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SAB-185
(anti-SARS-CoV-2)
SAB-185
is a fully-human, specifically targeted, highly potent, and broadly neutralizing human polyclonal antibody therapeutic candidate for
COVID-19.
SAB-185,
generated from the full-length spike protein of the
SARS-CoV-2
Wuhan strain, has shown neutralization of the Munich, Washington, South African, Delta, Lambda, and other variant strains in preclinical and nonclinical studies. In addition, recent data has demonstrated that
SAB-185
retains neutralization activity against the Omicron
SARS-CoV-2
in an in vitro pseudovirus model. Preclinical data has shown
SAB-185
to be significantly more potent than human-derived
COVID-19
convalescent IgG. We have completed multiple clinical and nonclinical studies to date, including a Phase 1 trial in healthy volunteers, and a Phase1b and Phase 2 clinical trial, both in
COVID-19
patients.
SAB-185
was being assessed in Phase 3 clinical trial as part of the
ACTIV-2
master protocol, sponsored, funded and conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (the NIH) in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). On February 28, 2022, the NIH decided to terminate the
ACTIV-2
program after determining that the decrease in hospitalizations resulted in operational futility and made it impossible to demonstrate statistically significant clinical efficacy with the existing study design.
 
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We have advanced
SAB-185
in collaboration with the U.S. Government, as part of the Countermeasures Acceleration Group, formerly Operation Warp Speed. We filed the IND application, produced the initial clinical doses and entered the Phase 1 clinical trial in just 128 days from the program initiation.
SAB-185
was designed and developed without the need for human convalescent plasma or human
B-cell
donations.
We continue to work with multiple U.S government collaborators to evaluate a number of options for the continued evaluation and testing of
SAB-185,
including advanced clinical development, targeting specialized populations, such as the immune compromised, and alternate routes of administration.
In addition, we will review the data from the Phase 3 portion of the
ACTIV-2
program and expect the full data readout for the Phase 2 NIH
ACTIV-2
trial to be available
Mid-2022.
COVID-19
Background
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illness in animals or humans. In humans there are several known coronaviruses that cause respiratory infections. These coronaviruses range from the common cold to more severe diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome
(SARS-CoV-1),
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), and
COVID-19
(SARS-CoV-2).
COVID-19,
the disease caused by
SARS-CoV-2
and its numerous variants, caused a global pandemic in 2020 that rapidly advanced throughout the world and has resulted in over 435 million cases and more than 5.9 million deaths as of March 1, 2022.
SARS-CoV-2’s
genome encodes a spike protein common to all members of the coronavirus family. Neutralizing antibodies to this spike protein are associated with protection from infection and disease and, as a result, this spike protein is the primary target for currently available vaccines and monoclonal antibodies therapies.
The emergence of several
SARS-CoV-2
variants have created significant concern with respect to therapeutics and vaccines to prevent and treat
COVID-19.
Some of the variants result in increased transmissibility and have shown resistance to current therapies that rely on neutralizing antibodies. These variants include the Omicron and Delta variants which have been identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as Variants of Concern given their potential severity of illness and associated death and their increased transmissibility. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has indicated that some monoclonal antibody treatments may not be as effective against infection with Omicron and the FDA has revoked the emergency use authorization for certain monoclonal antibody therapies. The FDA’s decision was based on the fact that
COVID-19
variants had been shown to be resistant to such therapies, resulting in the increased risk for treatment failure.
The Omicron variant continues to be the dominant variant today. Certain variants have caused reinfections in individuals with
pre-existing
antibody responses due to prior infection or vaccination, indicating that
pre-existing
antibodies do not necessarily fully protect against these variants.
Alternative Treatments and Limitations
Vaccines for Prevention of
COVID-19
Several vaccines have been authorized for the prevention of
COVID-19
under public health emergency guidelines in the United States and worldwide, including vaccines created by Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech utilizing mRNA as well as adenovirus-based vaccines developed by AstraZeneca and Janssen (a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson). While these vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in preventing
COVID-19,
we believe that a vaccine alone approach is not going to be fully effective to address the
COVID-19
pandemic because of several factors, including:
 
   
Current and future variants may be resistant in whole or in part to current vaccines.
 
   
Vaccines do not provide immediate protection as the neutralizing antibody response resulting from available vaccines takes approximately 10 to 14 days after the final dose of the vaccine.
 
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Immunocompromised individuals may not respond sufficiently to the neutralizing antibody response of the vaccines because of the limitations inherent in compromised immune systems.
 
   
Negative perceptions of vaccine safety continue to prevent a significant portion of the U.S. and world populations from accepting the vaccine as a safe and effective prophylactic.
 
   
The duration of vaccine protection is approximately six months and booster shots are recommended periodically to provide protection against new variants.
Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of
COVID-19
A small number of monoclonal antibody treatments (either as a monotherapy or a combination cocktail) have been granted emergency use authorization in the United States and are available for use in certain EU member states for the treatment of mild to moderate
COVID-19
in certain patient populations. The recent emergence of several
SARS-CoV-2
variants has impacted the efficacy of these treatments and the FDA has revoked the emergency use authorization for certain monoclonal antibody therapies. The FDA’s decision was based on the fact that
COVID-19
variants had been shown to be resistant to such therapies, resulting in the increased risk for treatment failure.
Antiviral Small Molecule Drugs for Treatment of
COVID-19
Molnupiravir is a polymerase inhibitor, which works by stopping the virus’s genetic material from being replicated accurately, causing the enzyme that replicates the virus’ RNA to inserts errors or mutations, which then get replicated many times until the virus can no longer survive. Research suggests drugs similar to molnupiravir can affect other enzymes in the body when given for longer periods of time and was of concern for the
13-10
vote from the FDA advisory committee.
Paxlovid is made up of two components, an experimental molecule called
PF-07321332
and a drug called ritonavir, which is also used in some drugs to treat HIV. Both components are protease inhibitors, meaning they block an enzyme that cuts apart long strands of nonfunctional viral proteins into smaller, functional proteins thus making viral proteins
non-functional.
Our Rationale for the Development of
SAB-185
Polyclonal Antibody for Treatment of
COVID-19
We began development of
SAB-185
around the middle of March 2020, when the seriousness of the pending pandemic became evident. We immediately procured DNA sequences of the full-length spike protein and began DNA immunization of the Tc Bovine. DNA from the immunizations incorporated into the cells of the Tc Bovine and began producing
SARS-CoV-2
Spike Protein that initiated and immune response in the animals. The animals were immunized twice with the DNA immunization, three weeks apart. During this time, we developed a full-length spike protein that was delivered to the Tc Bovine three weeks after the second DNA immunization. Plasma was collected from these animals on day 8, 11, and 14 after this third spike protein immunization. The plasma was pooled and used as the raw material to purify the
anti-SARS-CoV-2
human polyclonal antibodies in our proprietary purification process. The initial clinical lot was released in June 2020, the
pre-clinical
studies were completed, and the Initial New Drug Application was filed on July 6, 2020, with FDA agreeing to allow the start of the Phase 1 and Phase 1b clinical trials on July 31, 2020.
Phase 3 Trial
The Phase 3 portion of the NIH
ACTIV-2
trial, initiated in in early October, 2021, was designed as a randomized, open-label, active comparator-controlled platform study assessing the clinical safety and efficacy of
SAB-185
at a dose of 3,840 unit/kg (approximately 750 mg total dose in a 100 kg human) compared to active control monoclonal cocktail antibody treatment in people with mild to moderate
COVID-19
who are at higher risk for progression to hospitalization. The Phase 3 trial enrolled approximately 750 participants to receive the
 
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investigational agent SAB-185 and 750 to receive an active comparator with primary outcome measures including safety and
non-inferiority
for the prevention of a composite endpoint of either hospitalization or death from any cause through study day 28.
On February 28, 2022, the NIH decided to terminate the
ACTIV-2
program after determining that the decrease in hospitalizations resulted in operational futility and made it impossible to demonstrate statistically significant clinical efficacy with the existing study design. More information on the ongoing Phase 3 trial can be found at the ClinicalTrials.gov website (Identifier: NCT04518410).
Phase 2 Trial
The Phase 2 portion of the trial for
SAB-185
began in the second quarter of 2021.
ACTIV-2
is a
COVID-19
master protocol sponsored and funded by the NIH, in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. The Phase 2 trial was in ambulatory patients, with 110 participants in each of two cohorts, and a control group. More information can be found at ClinicalTrials.gov website under the identification code NCT04518410.
In September 2021, we announced that the DSMB had completed its prespecified interim analysis data review of the safety and efficacy of
SAB-185
in the Phase 2 portion of the NIH
ACTIV-2
trial and recommended advancement to Phase 3 based on meeting
pre-defined
graduation criteria.
Both the lower dose of 3,840 units/kg (approximately 750 mg total dose in a 100 kg human) and the higher dose of 10,240 units/kg (2000 mg total dose in a 100 kg human) of
SAB-185
tested in Phase 2 met the
pre-defined
efficacy goal for advancement to Phase 3 and appeared safe at the interim analysis. NIH and SAB researchers decided to assess the lower
SAB-185
dose in Phase 3.
We expect the full final data readout from the NIH
ACTIV-2
Phase 2 trial to be available
Mid-2022.
Phase 1 Trials
The Phase 1 trial, started in July 2020, was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of four cohorts consisting of a total of 28 subjects, at dose levels of 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg on two occasions, or 50 mg/kg of
SAB-185,
or normal saline. All subjects have concluded their participation. A description of this study can be found at the ClinicalTrials.gov website under the identification code of NCT04468958. The primary endpoint(s) were the incidence and severity of adverse events and Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) or transfusion-related adverse events at day 29. Secondary endpoints included the incidence and severity of adverse events and SAEs through day 90, among others. The DSMB monitored adverse events after each cohort was infused. The DSMB recommended that each later cohort could be infused with the next highest dose according to the study protocol. No
SAB-185-related
SAEs were identified by the DSMB, though some anticipated adverse events were noted in both the
SAB-185
and placebo participants. Interim aggregate data from the 10mg/kg and 25mg/kg cohorts from this study, including safety data, were submitted to the FDA.
The Phase 1b trial, started in August 2020, was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of three cohorts consisting of a total of 21 subjects, at dose levels of 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of
SAB-185
or normal saline. A description of this study can be found at the ClinicalTrials.gov website under the identification code NCT04469179. The primary endpoint(s) were the incidence and severity of adverse events and SAEs or transfusion-related adverse events at day 29. Secondary endpoints included the incidence and severity of adverse events and SAEs through day 90 and measurement of
SARS-CoV-2
quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results of the naso/oropharynx at various times. The DSMB monitored adverse events after each cohort was infused and recommended that each later cohort could be infused with the next highest dose according to the study protocol. No
SAB-185-related
SAEs were identified by the DSMB though adverse events were noted in both the
SAB-185
and placebo participants. Interim aggregate data from the 10mg/kg and 25mg/kg cohorts from this study, including safety data, were submitted to the FDA.
 
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After completion of the Phase 1 trials, the FDA allowed
SAB-185
to progress into an adaptive
COVID-19
Phase 2 as part of the
ACTIV-2
master protocol, which can be found at ClinicalTrials.gov website under the identification code NCT04518410, sponsored and conducted by the NIH.
Preclinical Studies
 
LOGO
In this study conducted at the University of Pittsburg in 2020,
SAB-185
was compared to the highest titer convalescent plasma available using the plaque reduction neutralization titer needed to neutralize 100% of the
SARS-CoV-2
virus. These results suggest that
SAB-185
is 40 times more potent than high titer convalescent plasma. This high titer, target specific human polyclonal antibody is achieved through our hyperimmunization strategy. These high titer human polyclonal antibodies cannot be achieved with convalescent plasma from human donors.
 
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In this study conducted at Washington University School of Medicine in 2020, we evaluated the ability of three different lots of
SAB-185
and an
anti-SARS-CoV-2
monoclonal antibody to prevent
SARS-CoV-2
escape mutants. The three different lots of
SAB-185
and the monoclonal antibody were serially passaged in the presence of
SARS-CoV-2
virus. As shown, no
SAB-185
lots allowed the development of escape mutants. However,
SARS-CoV-2
escape mutants developed in the presence of the monoclonal antibody indicated by the three red arrows, one of which includes an E484K mutant. This specific mutation that was lab generated is also a currently circulating mutation found in multiple
SARS-CoV-2
variants of concern and variants of interest that are infecting humans globally.
 
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Multiple
SARS-CoV-2
variants with spike protein mutations have arisen and are infecting humans globally, and their impact on the effectiveness of both vaccines and immunotherapies is a growing concern. We have been collaborating with the U.S. Government COVID response throughout 2020 and 2021 to evaluate the ability of
SAB-185
to neutralize these mutant strains using a pseudovirion assay developed and conducted at the FDA. In this study, the inhibitory concentration at 50% of
SAB-185
was determined against pseudovirions containing mutations in the spike protein and compared to the wild-type virus, to determine the ratio between the two. As can be seen on the table above to the left in the IC50 ratio column, no significant impact on the IC50 ratio was observed for any of the tested mutant strains including the current most prevalent strain in the U.S., the Delta variant. This indicates that
SAB-185
is retaining neutralization potency to these existing
SARS-CoV-2
variants of concern and potentially future emerging variants. In addition, specific virus point mutations like the E484K mutation are known to escape some monoclonal antibody therapeutics, which is indicated on the heatmap to the right are all fully neutralized by
SAB-185.
In addition, recent data has demonstrated that
SAB-185
retains neutralization activity against the Omicron
SARS-CoV-2
in an in vitro pseudovirus model. The data were generated by scientists at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER).
 
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LOGO
In this study, FDA researchers evaluated
SAB-185
using a lentiviral-based pseudovirus assay conducted in a BSL2 environment that incorporates a stable 293T cell line expressing human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). The results indicate that
SAB-185
retains a potent ability to neutralize recombinant S protein lentiviral pseudovirus that mimics the
SARS-CoV-2
Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant.
Although
SAB-185
retained potent neutralization of the Omicron variant, it did show a mild-moderate reduction in potency compared to the wild type. Due to the nature of human polyclonal antibodies, it is important to note that neutralization is only one component of overall efficacy which can potentially provide therapeutic benefit to patients. For example, polyclonal antibodies can effectively block receptors used for viral entry by binding to multiple epitopes on the receptor binding domain and activation of immune effector cells which are not evaluated in this study. The versatility of our platform also provides the capability to quickly add strains and adjust to new variants through strain change supplements to our regulatory filings.
SAB-185
Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE)
Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) is a poorly understood phenomenon in which a viral disease can become much more severe or lethal after vaccination or after administration of antibodies against a virus. In the first half of 2020, we investigated the potential of
SAB-185
to cause severe disease in a wild-type (WT) ferret model of mild disease after infection with
SARS-CoV-2.
Cohorts of WT ferrets (four cohorts, N=3 per cohort) were infused with 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1 mg/kg of
SAB-185
(one log range in dose) or normal saline 15 hours prior to infection with a
low-passage
Munich strain of
SARS-CoV-2
and followed for 14 days. The 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mg/kg
SAB-185
doses in ferrets were selected to approximate potentially
non-neutralizing
SAB-185
antibody concentrations that would occur after multiple half-lives after a human received 5 to 20 mg/kg of
SAB-185.
The results of the study indicated that
SAB-185
treatment of the WT ferret cohorts did not cause acute toxicity, any mortality, or enhanced disease over the course of
14-day
study. All groups and animals had mild disease, though individual animals had variations in measured clinical and scientific parameters.
SAB-185
Tissue Cross Reactivity Study
The objective of this study, conducted in 2020 in preparation for IND submission, was to evaluate the potential cross reactivity of biotinylated
SAB-185
with cryosections from a full panel of human tissues. Two different lots (Lot Nos. A5303 and A5304) of biotinylated
SAB-185
were compared. In order to detect binding, the biotinylated test articles, designated
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5303) and
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5304), were
 
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applied to cryosections of normal human tissues (at least 3 donors per tissue, where available) at two concentrations (35 and 10 µg/mL [Lot No. A5303] or 35 and 7 µg/mL [Lot No. A5304]). In addition, the test articles were substituted with a biotinylated polyclonal human IgG antibody, which has a different immunogenic specificity from that of the test articles, designated HuIgG-Bio (control article). Other controls were produced by omission of the test or control articles from the assay (assay control).
SAB-185-Bio
(both Lot Nos. A5303 and A5304) produced weak to strong staining of the positive control material
(SARS-CoV-2
RBD-His
UV-resin
spot slides [designated
SARS-CoV-2
RBD]) at the higher concentration, with a reduction in staining intensity to weak to moderate at the lower concentration of
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5303) and comparable staining at the lower concentration of
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5304).
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5303) and
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5304) did not specifically react with the negative control material (human hypercalcemia of malignancy peptide, amino acid residues
1-34
UV-resin
spot slides [designated PTHrP
1-34])
at either staining concentration. The control article, HuIgG-Bio, did not specifically react with either the positive or negative control materials. There also was no staining of the assay control slides. The specific reactions of
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5303) and
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot No. A5304) in all staining runs with the positive control material and the lack of specific reactivity with the negative control material, as well as the lack of reactivity of the control article, indicated that the assay was sensitive, specific, and reproducible.
No staining was present with
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot Nos. A5303 or A5304) in the human tissue panel examined. As
SAB-185-Bio
(Lot Nos. A5303 or A5304) bind to a viral protein not expected to be expressed in normal human tissues, this result was anticipated.
The results of the ADE and Tissue Cross Reactivity studies were submitted to the FDA for review as part of the IND request. The FDA allowed us to initiate a Phase 1 trial in healthy adults and a Phase 1b trial in ambulatory adults with confirmed
SARS-CoV-2
infection.
SAB-176
(Severe Influenza)
SAB-176
is a multivalent, broadly neutralizing fully-human polyclonal antibody therapeutic candidate in development for the treatment or prevention of severe influenza. This novel, specifically targeted high-potency immunotherapy leverages the natural human immune response and is designed to bind and neutralize both Type A and Type B influenza, including emerging and mutating strains. It may also be modified to address annual strain changes when needed. Nonclinical data suggests that
SAB-176
offers broad protection against diverse influenza strains, even those that were not specifically targeted, potentially because of its strong cross-reactive potencies to conserved epitopes. We have completed multiple clinical and nonclinical studies to date, including a Phase 1 trial in healthy volunteers, and a Phase 2a challenge study that was initiated in June 2021.
SAB-176
has the potential to complement seasonal vaccine programs, to achieve better efficacy than small molecule anti-influenza antivirals in the general population, to avoid development of resistant strains and to serve as a protective prophylactic in high-risk populations. This promising therapy is well-suited to address highly mutating viruses that have significant annual health impacts as well as pandemic potential.
Influenza Market
Seasonal influenza remains a meaningful burden for the healthcare system. While the influenza season differs each year, the CDC estimates there are on average 9 — 41 million cases of influenza each year, with 140,000 — 710,000 hospitalizations and 12,000 — 52,000 deaths per year (average 2010-2020). Oseltamivir phosphate (branded: Tamiflu
®
) is an effective therapy for treating the flu if used within two days of onset. However, some patients still develop severe disease and are resistant to treatment (estimates of resistance vary:
3-27%).
As such, we see the potential for an additional treatment for flu, particularly in higher-risk patients.
While the severity of influenza is challenging to forecast year to year, for simplicity’s sake, we assume a consistent incidence rate of 30 million cases in the U.S., within the average range of the last ten years. In the
 
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2020/2021 influenza season, cases and hospitalizations were down markedly (approximately 60% and 90%, respectively), as many or more of the vulnerable patients contracted COVID, rather than influenza. It is our expectation that influenza is globally persistent and case rates are expected to come back to historical levels in the coming years. We expect that at the time of launch, there will be approximately 30 million cases of influenza in the U.S. annually, about half of which will require a medical visit.
Phase 2a Challenge Trial
In December 2021, we announced topline data for a Phase 2a challenge trial that was initiated in June 2021. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the safety and treatment efficacy of
SAB-176
in 60 healthy adults challenged with a pandemic influenza virus strain (pH1N1). Participants were randomized to receive either
SAB-176
(25 mg/kg dose) or placebo and were intranasally inoculated with pandemic H1N1 (2009/California) virus. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken 8 days after inoculation.
The primary endpoint of the study was reduction of the nasopharyngeal viral load of subjects treated with
SAB-176
(expressed as area under the curve, or AUC) compared to those receiving placebo over an
8-day
timepoint as measured by qRT-PCR.
SAB-176
met the primary endpoint of significantly reducing patient pH1N1 influenza viral load in the treated subjects (p = 0.026, one sided).
 
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A secondary endpoint of the challenge study was reduction of clinical flu signs and symptoms in the subjects receiving active treatment (n=8) compared to placebo controls (n=12) for those who had signs and symptoms.
SAB-176
achieved statistical significance in meeting the secondary endpoint at Day 4 (p = 0.013, one sided) in symptomatic patients. A full analysis and data readout is being prepared and expected in the first half of 2022.
In this study,
SAB-176
also appeared to be safe and well tolerated. No
SAB-176-related
SAEs were observed, and most adverse events were mild to moderate.
 
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Phase 1 Trial
SAB-176
was evaluated in an ascending dose, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 1 safety trial in 27 healthy volunteers in 2020. The FDA allowed us to initiate a Phase 1 trial in healthy adults based on the safety profile in the preclinical data set. A Safety Review Committee (SRC) monitored adverse events after each cohort was infused and recommended that each later cohort could be infused with the next highest dose according to the study protocol. Although anticipated adverse events were noted among the
SAB-176
and placebo participants, no drug related SAEs were identified by the SRC.
Preclinical Studies
 
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A
pre-clinical
study, conducted at Utah State University in 2017, demonstrated the ability of our anti-influenza human antibodies (an earlier,
non-optimized
candidate designated
SAB-149)
to produce cross-reactive antibodies to mutating influenza strains we did not initially target. The panel to the left is phylogenetic tree or ancestral map of the B Yamagata seasonal influenza strain. Specifically highlighted are the 2013 B/Phuket/ strain used to produce antibodies from our platform and its distant relative from 2006, the B/Florida strain which we used as the challenge strain in a lethal mouse model in the panel to the left. As shown here, the antibodies provided 100% protection down to 12.5 mg/kg demonstrating cross-protection to current and future emerging flu variants due mutational drift. This is a potential advantage of polyclonal antibodies and our platform.
 
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LOGO
One of the areas of growing concern with small molecule antivirals used to treat influenza is neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. For this reason, new treatments for influenza are needed. In this study conducted at the University of Utah in 2019, the
in-vivo
efficacy of
SAB-176
compared to a human-derived antibody product and the small molecule, Oseltamivir was assessed in a lethal mouse model after challenge with an Oseltamivir resistant pandemic H1N1 strain. Five mg/kg of
SAB-176
provided 100% protection while 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the human-derived anti-influenza antibody or oseltamivir did not. This suggest that
SAB-176,
at very low doses, could be effective in the treatment of humans infected with neuraminidase resistant or
non-resistant
H1N1 influenza.
SAB-176
Tissue Cross Reactivity
The objective of this study conducted in 2019 was to determine the potential cross reactivity of biotinylated
SAB-176,
a polyclonal human IgG antibody directed against influenza virus, with cryosections of human and rabbit (New Zealand White) tissues. To detect binding, the biotinylated test article, designated
SAB-176-Bio,
was applied to cryosections of normal human tissues (at least three donors per tissue, where available) and rabbit tissues (at least two animals per tissue, where available) at two concentrations (20 and 2 µg/mL). In addition, the test article was substituted with a biotinylated human IgG antibody, which has a different immunogenic specificity from that of the test article, designated HuIgG-Bio (control article). Other controls were produced by omission of the test or control articles from the assay (assay control).
SAB-176-Bio
produced weak to strong staining of the positive control material (rHA1-H1N1
[A/Cal/07/09]-His
[recombinant hemagglutinin protein]
UV-resin
spot slides [designated rHA1-H1N1]) at both concentrations.
SAB-176-Bio
did not specifically react with the negative control material (human hypercalcemia of malignancy peptide, amino acid residues
1-34,
UV-
resin spot slides [designated PTHrP
1-34])
at either staining concentration. The control article, HuIgG-Bio, did not specifically react with either the positive or negative control materials. There also was no staining of the assay control slides. The specific reactions of
SAB-176-Bio
in all staining runs with the positive control material and the lack of specific reactivity with the negative control material, as well as the lack of reactivity of the control article, indicated that the assay was sensitive, specific, and reproducible.
No staining was present with
SAB-176-Bio
in the human panel examined. As
SAB-176-Bio
binds to an influenza virus protein not expected to be expressed in normal human tissues, this result was anticipated. In the rabbit
 
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tissue panel, staining with
SAB-176-Bio
was restricted to the cytoplasm of rare epithelial cells in hair follicles in the skin. Binding to cytoplasmic sites in tissue cross-reactivity studies generally is considered of little to no toxicologic significance due to the limited ability of antibody drugs to access the cytoplasmic compartment in vivo. (Hall, et al., Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Biopharmaceuticals: A Science-Based Approach to Facilitating Clinical Trials. Wiley-Interscience; 2008. p.
208-40
and Leach et. al. Toxicol Pathol 2010
December;38(7):1138-66).
SAB-176
Toxicology
The objectives of this study, conducted in 2019, were to determine the potential toxicity of
SAB-176
for the treatment of Type A and Type B influenza illnesses, when given as a single intravenous infusion to rabbits and to evaluate the potential reversibility of any findings. In addition, the toxicokinetic characteristics of
SAB-176
were determined.
The following parameters and end points were evaluated in this study: clinical signs, body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, ophthalmology, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis), toxicokinetic parameters, immunogenicity analysis, gross necropsy findings, organ weights, and histopathologic examinations.
There were no test article-related effects noted on clinical signs, body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, ophthalmology, gross necropsy findings, organ weights, or histopathologic examinations.
There were no test article-related adverse effects on clinical pathology parameters. Decreased leukocytes (WBC) (down to 0.82X), lymphocytes (0.74X), monocytes (0.61X), eosinophils (0.50X), basophils (0.57X), and large unstained cells (0.73X), as well as increased neutrophils (1.2X) were noted in test article-treated females on Day 1 when compared to concurrent controls. These differences improved, but most were still present on Day 3 of the study. By Day 50, these values were similar to that of concurrent controls. Decreased activated partial thromboplastin time (0.76X and 0.80X) was noted in test article-treated females on Day 3 and Day 50 when compared to concurrent controls. Increased globulin (up to 1.59X) with associated decreased albumin to globulin ratio was noted in test article-treated males and females on Day 3 when compared to concurrent controls. These differences were not noted on Day 50.
In conclusion, administration of
SAB-176
by single intravenous infusion was well tolerated in rabbits at levels of 362.65 and 725.30 mg/kg/day. No target organs were observed. Based on these results, the
no-observed-adverse
effect level (NOAEL) was considered to be 725.30 mg/kg/day.
SAB-176
was assessed in
IND-enabling
studies including Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) tissue cross reactivity and toxicology studies. The results were submitted to the FDA for review as part of the IND submission.
SAB-142
(Organ Transplant & Type 1 Diabetes)
We are currently advancing therapeutic candidates through its
SAB-142
program for organ transplant induction and organ transplant rejection, as well as a related program to address T1D. We are also conducting an undisclosed autoimmune target research effort under a research collaboration agreement with CSL Behring. The collaboration is exploring the potential of new therapies to treat challenging autoimmune and idiopathic diseases using polyclonal antibodies generated by our DiversitAb platform. We are sharing research program and related costs with CSL Behring. The collaboration may lead to subsequent development and commercialization agreements.
Potentially Significant Opportunity in Transplant
SAB-142
is a fully-human anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) candidate for preventing organ transplant rejection. Current approved ATG products are sourced from animals, including transplant market leader rabbit-derived
 
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Thymoglobulin, and equine-derived ATGAM. A human ATG alternative has the potential for higher potency without toxicity, presenting a potential opportunity to redefine the standard of care. Dosing advantages of a human ATG may include a longer half-life and potential for repeat dosing, without significant potential to generate serum sickness or anaphylaxis, which can be caused by the presence of animal proteins in the current therapies.
Despite broad use, there are several limitations of approved ATG products. Risks of serum sickness and anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation have limited use of animal ATG products, with rates of serum sickness >30% and repeat dosing not recommended. Therefore, physicians typically reserve its use for immune induction or acute rejection — but not both. A human alternative such as
SAB-142
is expected to have several advantages over ATG animal antibody products. In the established transplant market, a human ATG that has a reduced risk of adverse events such as serum sickness has the potential to penetrate the current market and expand existing clinical use.
SAB-142,
has demonstrated a comparable profile in vitro to approved animal ATG products–equine-derived ATGAM and rabbit-derived Thymoglobulin. The Tc Bovine-derived human ATG has also demonstrated higher potency compared to Thymoglobulin in vitro. We expect to show improved safety, dosing, and efficacy profiles for our human ATG program in future human studies.
 
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This is a flow cytometry analysis of a gated lymphocyte cell population comparing
SAB-142
to the two FDA approved and commercially available rabbit and horse ATG products on the market. As you can see,
SAB-142
binds to the same
T-cell
population as both rabbit and horse ATG antibodies, suggesting comparable mode of action.
 
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LOGO
We further explored the mode of action of
SAB-142
against
T-cell
subsets.
SAB-142
had higher CD8 killing activity compared to the rabbit antibody and had similar performance in survival of
T-regulatory
cells, induction of activated CD4 T Cells, and reduction of naïve CD4 cells. These in vitro results strongly suggest that
SAB-142
may have the potency attributes needed for transplant induction and rejection therapy while having the impactful product advantage of an improved safety profile. The product attributes of
SAB-142
are potentially also well aligned to address the desired safety profile of ATG treatments that have been shown to be beneficial in treating T1D.
Therapeutic Potential in
New-Onset
Type 1 Diabetes
A potentially significant application for
SAB-142
is for the delay or prevention of the onset of T1D, a serious lifelong autoimmune disease. T1D affects 1.6 million people and there are 60,000+ new diagnoses each year in the U.S. alone. The full potential of agents such as Thymoglobulin to delay or prevent T1D is limited by the unsuitability of animal products for repeat dosing.
SAB-142
represents an opportunity to offer a novel fully human alternative to rabbit- or equine-derived ATG antibodies, that has the potential for
re-dosing
and avoids current risk factors such as serum sickness, anaphylaxis, and loss of efficacy of currently available therapies. Based on results of a Phase 2 clinical trial conducted by Dr. Michael Haller at the University of Florida, a single dose of rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) showed sustained benefit in T1D over two years by maintaining significantly higher
C-peptide
levels (a marker of pancreatic beta cell function) than placebo controls. However, more than 65% of treated patients in this study acquired serum sickness due to infusion of an animal antibody (rather than human) that included rash,
3-4
days of malaise, fever, and joint swelling. The symptoms often required treatment with steroids that worsens diabetes management and reduces capacity to give the rabbit ATG again as
C-peptide
levels begin to drop as shown in the graph below. In addition to potentially preserving beta cell function in early T1D patients, a human ATG like
SAB-142
could open the possibility of
re-dosing
when clinically meaningful indicators such as
C-peptide
levels and glycosylated hemoglobin blood tests indicate worsening disease, without the potential risk of inducing the major immune reactions that can occur with fully-animal antibodies.
 
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LOGO
We have commenced initial
IND-enabling
studies. we plan to initiate additional
IND-enabling
studies for
SAB-142
in the fourth quarter of 2022, pending availability of appropriate study models.
Oncology (Undisclosed Targets)
We have the potential to develop polyclonal therapeutic candidates that address multiple aspects of cancer. We are pursuing undisclosed target opportunities for which we expect to release early developmental data in the second quarter of 2022.
We believe that the DiversitAb platform may to lead to oncology applications for our polyclonal antibodies because of our potential to address mutations, polymorphisms, and resistance pathways. Our human polyclonal antibodies may offer advantages as cancer therapies, including:
 
   
Multi-targeting
— Ability to simultaneously target multiple modalities of cancer in a single product.
 
   
Multivalency
— Leverages native immune response — polyclonal antibodies — with binding to multiple epitopes to address mutations.
 
   
Metastasis Prevention
— Literature suggests human polyclonal IVIG antibodies may help prevent tumor metastases.
 
   
Effector Function
— Enhanced effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement dependent cytotoxicity.
 
   
Replicability
— Developed antibodies against a variety of oncology targets using our DiversitAb platform.
We have recruited and deployed an oncology-focused team with the goal of pioneering polyclonal antibodies for use in treating cancer. We have filed several patent applications and expect to demonstrate initial
proof-of-principle
in oncology in the second quarter of 2022.
Government Contracts and Collaborations
We have collaborated extensively with U.S. Government agencies within both the Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS). We are executing an award from Joint Program
 
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Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense (JPEO — CBRND) Joint Project Lead for Enabling Biotechnologies
(JPL-EB)
(hereafter
JPEO-EB)
within the DOD that includes
co-funding
from the Defense Health Authority and from BARDA (within HHS). The award currently totals up to approximately $200 million. The scope of the award includes
proof-of-concept,
scaling and live-fire of a Rapid Response Antibody Program leveraging our response capabilities and was expanded to include our
COVID-19
therapeutic,
SAB-185,
as part of the Countermeasures Acceleration Group (formerly Operation Warp Speed). That expansion included significant capacity growth, addition of capabilities, and expansion of infrastructure including human resources and facilities.
The use of
SAB-185
in the
ACTIV-2
trial is sponsored, funded and conducted by the NIH and we are not required to bear any of the costs of this clinical trial.
Manufacturing Strategy
In support of our operations, we currently operate two plasma fractionation purification facilities in Sioux Falls, South Dakota: a 50L scale cGMP suite that has produced clinical grade drug product, and a 200L scale clean room that was completed in 2021 and is currently being validated to produce clinical grade drug substance and drug product. The 200L facility is expected to generate drug product in 2022.
In addition, we maintain substantial laboratory facilities and operations in Sioux Falls, South Dakota for product development and testing, quality control and discovery. We recently initiated our own internal immunogen development capabilities and significantly scaled production capacity to accommodate the Tc Bovine immunizations required for
SAB-185
production. We have also recently initiated an expansion of our research and development laboratory facilities to accommodate expansion in oncology research, clinical testing, and discovery.
Our Tc Bovine are housed at dedicated specialty facilities that cater to the production, health, safety, and welfare of the animals, and provide plasma production at commercial scale for our products. The upstream process is easily scalable. Animals donate plasma three times per month (2.1% of bodyweight each time). To produce more product, more animals must be immunized for a target.
Advanced clinical product for
SAB-185
was produced at CSL Behring. We are presently engaged in discussions with additional third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture commercial drug substance and drug product at commercial scale.
Competition
The biopharmaceutical industry is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change as research provides a deeper understanding of the pathology of diseases and new technologies and treatments are developed. We believe our scientific knowledge, technology, and development capabilities provide us with substantial competitive advantages, but we face potential competition from multiple sources, major pharmaceutical, specialty pharmaceutical and existing or emerging biotechnology companies, academic research institutions, governmental agencies, and public and private research institutions worldwide.
Our competitors may have significantly greater financial resources, robust drug pipelines, established presence in the market and expertise in research and development, manufacturing,
pre-clinical
and clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals and reimbursement and marketing approved products than we do. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified clinical, regulatory, scientific, sales, marketing, and management personnel, in establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.
 
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We face competition from pharmaceutical, biotechnology and other companies that have or are pursuing the development of antibody treatments, including Adagio Therapeutics, Inc., AstraZeneca plc, Brii Biosciences Limited, Celltrion Healthcare Co, Ltd., Eli Lilly and Co, GlaxoSmithKline, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Vir Biotechnology, Inc. In addition, we may face competition from many established pharmaceutical companies focused on developing vaccines, oral antivirals, and other therapeutics.
If any future product candidates identified through our current lead programs are eventually approved for sale, they will likely compete with a range of treatments that are either in development or currently marketed for use in those same disease indications. Our success will partially depend on our ability to obtain, maintain, enforce, and defend patents and other intellectual property rights with respect to our antibodies that are proven to be safer or more effective or are less expensive than competing products. We could see a reduction or elimination in our commercial opportunity if our competitors develop and commercialize drugs that are safer, better tolerated, more effective, more convenient to administer, less expensive, more resistant to viral escape, or receive a more favorable label than our product candidates.
Intellectual Property
We actively seek to protect the intellectual property and proprietary technology platform that we believe is important to our business, which includes seeking and maintaining patents covering our technology platform and products, and any other inventions that are commercially or strategically important to the development of our business. We also seek to protect the confidentiality of trade secrets that may be important to the development of our business. Our ability to stop third parties from making, using, selling, offering to sell, or importing our products may depend on the extent to which we have rights under valid and enforceable patents or trade secrets that cover these activities. For more information, please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property”.
The portfolio of intellectual property and trade secrets that we have developed includes patents related to the activity of our human artificial chromosome and methods that we expect to generate fully human antibodies at commercial scale. The patent portfolio includes composition and method patents. Our goal is to continue expansion of the breadth of claims and length of claim protections. Our patented technologies may be difficult to replicate, creating potential barriers to entry, as our genetic engineering
know-how
and suite of proprietary platform IP and trade secrets have been developed and optimized over nearly two decades.
We expect our global patent protection to extend beyond 2033 with respect to producing commercial scale human antibodies using our chromosome engineering that generates high concentrations of human antibodies in ungulates. However, we recognize that the area of patent and other intellectual property rights in biotechnology is an evolving one with many risks and uncertainties, which may affect those rights.
Our patented technologies may be difficult to replicate, creating potential barriers to entry, as its genetic engineering
know-how
and suite of proprietary platform IP and trade secrets has been developed and optimized over nearly two decades.
As of December 31, 2021, our patent portfolio includes over 40 issued patents or pending applications in 12 patent families. We have made strategic filings in jurisdictions in jurisdictions include the United States, Australia, Canada, China, Europe, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, India, Mexico and Russia, in these 12 patent families.
These 12 patent families cover:
 
   
Granted patents to produce a transgenic bovine (expiring in 2021, but also covered by granted patents within the portfolio that continue to protect the technology with advancements made to the production system including expirations as late as 2033).
 
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Granted patents for genetically modified
non-human
mammals (e.g., bovines and other ungulates), and methods of making these mammals (latest ones expiring in 2033).
 
   
Granted patents relating to transgenic ungulate embryos of one or more cells that have a human chromosome fragment, and methods for making them (expiring in 2025).
 
   
Granted patents relating to a human artificial chromosome vector comprising a gene encoding the human antibody heavy chain, a gene encoding the human antibody light chain, and a gene encoding IgM heavy chain constant region derived (at least in part) from a nonhuman animal (expiring in 2033).
 
   
Granted patents relating to large-scale production of human antibodies by transgenic animals with high production of fully human IgG of at least 1 g/L in sera (expiring in 2031).
 
   
Granted patents covering methods for cloning
non-human
mammals that allow the donor chromosomes or donor cells to be reprogrammed prior to insertion into an enucleated oocyte dominancy (expiring in 2023).
 
   
Granted patent covering a method for producing human antibodies against a pathogen comprising injecting a
non-human
animal with a viral pathogen-derived DNA vaccine in at least two locations of the animal (expiring in 2035).
 
   
Granted patents covering cloned transgenic ungulates (e.g., bovines) in which prion protein activity is reduced by one or more genetically engineered mutations (expiring in 2023).
 
   
Related to anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) products, a pending international patent application covering ungulate-derived polyclonal immunoglobulin compositions comprising fully human or substantially human immunoglobulins that specifically bind human thymocytes, T cells, B cells, and/or monocytes, and methods of making and using the same (expiring in 2041).
 
   
Pending international and U.S. patent applications covering ungulate-derived human immunoglobulins that specifically bind coronavirus S protein, and methods of making and using the same intreating or preventing coronavirus disease (expiring in 2041).
 
   
An international patent application covering ungulate-derived human immunoglobulins that specifically bind Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and methods of making and using the same in treating or preventing cancer (expiring in 2041).
 
   
An international patent application covering ungulate-derived polyclonal immunoglobulin compositions comprising human immunoglobulins that specifically bind Programmed Death-Ligand 1
(PD-L1),
and methods of making and using the same in treating or preventing cancer (expiring in 2041).
Our proprietary
know-how
and trade secrets include the following:
 
   
Complex chromosome engineering trade secrets not disclosed in patent applications.
 
   
Immunogen dose levels used for nucleotides, peptides, proteins, closely autologous proteins, virus particles, whole inactivated viruses, cell membranes, whole cells, bacteria, glycol-proteins, human cell immunogens, tissue preparation.
 
   
Our adjuvants formulations for immunogen hyperimmunization.
 
   
Bovine plasma fractionation procedures and trade secrets contained within our proprietary Standard Operating Procedures.
 
   
Animal husbandry procedures for human antibody-producing ungulates.
 
   
Transgenic
neo-natal
ungulate IVIG administration for failure of passive immunity.
 
   
Certain cell culture and cloning practices not disclosed in patents.
 
   
Plasma collection procedures not disclosed in publications and patents.
 
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The term of any individual patent depends upon the legal term of the patent in the country or countries (or jurisdiction, e.g., the European Union) in which it is obtained.
U.S. Patent Regulatory Regime
In most countries in which we file, including the United States, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest date of filing a
non-provisional
patent application. In the United States, a patent’s term may potentially be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the U.S. PTO in examining and granting a patent considering delays on the part of the patentee or may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed over an earlier filed patent. In the United States, the patent term of a patent that covers an
FDA-approved
drug may also be eligible for patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. Patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Similar provisions are available in Europe and other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. In the future, if and when our products receive FDA approval, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on patents covering those products. We expect to seek patent term extensions to any of our issued patents in any jurisdiction where these are available, however there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities, including the FDA in the United States, will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and if granted, the length of such extensions. For more information regarding the risks related to our intellectual property, see the section titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
For all patent applications, we determine claiming strategy on a
case-by-case
basis. Advice of counsel and our business model and needs are always considered. We file patents containing claims for protection of all useful applications of our proprietary technologies and any products, as well as all new applications and/or uses we discover for existing technologies and products, assuming these are strategically valuable. We may periodically reassess the number and type of patent applications, as well as the pending and issued patent claims to ensure that coverage and value are obtained for our processes, and compositions, given existing patent law and court decisions. Further, claims may be modified during patent prosecution to meet our intellectual property and business needs.
We recognize that the ability to obtain patent protection and the degree of such protection depends on several factors, including the extent of the prior art, the novelty and
non-obviousness
of the invention, and the ability to satisfy subject matter, written description, and enablement requirements of the various patent jurisdictions. In addition, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted or further altered even after patent issuance. Consequently, we may not obtain or maintain adequate patent protection for any of our future product candidates or for our technology platform. We cannot predict whether the patent applications we are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any issued patents will provide sufficient proprietary protection from competitors. Any patents that we hold may be challenged, circumvented, or invalidated by third parties.
In addition to patent protection, we also rely on trade secrets, know how, other proprietary information and/or continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect and maintain the confidentiality of proprietary information to protect aspects of our business that are not amenable to, or that we do not consider appropriate for, patent protection. It is our policy to require our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers, and other advisors to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements provide that all confidential information concerning our business or financial affairs developed or made known to the individual during the individual’s relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third
 
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parties except in specific circumstances. Our agreements with employees also provide that all inventions conceived by the employee in the course of employment with us or from the employee’s use of our confidential information are our exclusive property. However, such confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements can be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors. To the extent that our consultants, contractors, or collaborators use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting trade secrets,
know-how
and inventions. For more information regarding the risks related to our intellectual property, see the section titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
The patent positions of biotechnology companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal, scientific, and factual questions. Our commercial success will also depend in part on not infringing upon the proprietary rights of third parties. It is uncertain whether the issuance of any third-party patent would require us to alter our development or commercial strategies, or our products or processes, obtain licenses or cease certain activities. Our breach of any license agreements or our failure to obtain a license to proprietary rights required to develop or commercialize our future products may have a material adverse impact on us. If third parties prepare and file patent applications in the United States that also claim technology to which we have rights, we may have to participate in interference or derivation proceedings in the U.S. PTO to determine priority of invention. For more information, see the section titled “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
U.S. Patent Term Restoration
Depending upon the timing, duration, and specifics of FDA approval of product candidates, some of a sponsor’s U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit a patent restoration term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during the product development and FDA regulatory review process. However, patent term restoration cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The patent term restoration period generally is
one-half
the time between the effective date of an IND and the submission date of a biologics license application (BLA) less any time the sponsor did not act with due diligence during the period, plus the time between the submission date of a BLA and the approval of that application less any time the sponsor did not act with due diligence during the period. Only one patent applicable to an approved biological product is eligible for the extension, only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it or a method for manufacturing it may be extended and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. Moreover, a given patent may only be extended once based on a single product. The U.S. PTO, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration.
Government Regulation
In the United States, we expect our polyclonal antibody product candidates to be regulated by the FDA as biological products. Additionally, in manufacturing our product candidates, we alter the genomic DNA in animals, and FDA considers such altered genomic DNA in an animal to be a new animal drug, which require submission and approval of a New Animal Drug Application (NADA) prior to being marketed in the United States.
Regulation of Transgenic Animals and New Animal Drugs
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulates the company’s Tc Bovine husbandry activities, including housing, healthcare, and general management of these specialized animals. This includes regulations and periodic facility inspections and reporting. We also are voluntarily accredited by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC). The AAALAC International accreditation program evaluates organizations that use animals in research, teaching or testing. Those that meet or exceed AAALAC
 
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standards are awarded accreditation. The accreditation process includes an extensive internal review conducted by the institution applying for accreditation.
The FDA considers, with limited exclusions, the altered genomic DNA in an animal to be a drug because such altered DNA is an article intended to affect the structure or function of the body of the animal, and, in some cases, intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in the animal. In the United States, new animal drugs are subject to regulation under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act, and under the FD&C Act, in general, a new animal drug is “deemed unsafe” and adulterated unless the FDA has approved a new animal drug application (NADA) for its intended use or unless the drug is only for investigational use and conforms to specified exemptions for such use under an investigational new animal drug (INAD) exemption. Further, early in the development process, FDA has allowed the submission of information to FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), without the establishment of an INAD file, such as through creation of a veterinary master file (VMF), subject to certain conditions such as restrictions on introducing any food derived from such investigational animals into the food supply.
The requirements governing development and approval of a new animal drug are analogous to those for new human drugs. A NADA must generally be accompanied by payment of a substantial user fee and must contain substantial evidence of the safety and effectiveness of the new animal drug as well as detailed descriptions of the methods used in and the facilities and controls used for the manufacturing, processing and packaging of the new animal drug to enable FDA to reach a determination that such methods, facilities and controls are adequate to preserve the identify, strength, quality and purity of the new animal drug. Further, when FDA reviews and approves a NADA, FDA generally conducts a review of environmental risks pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), if any and where required.
The steps involved in completing the INAD/NADA process are cumulative and risk based with each component of the assessment forming the basis on which the next step is evaluated.
Step 1: Product Identification
Product identification (21 CFR 514.1(b)(1)), which many molecular biologists would refer to as product definition, forms the foundation for the evaluation process and drives subsequent data generation and review. It encompasses the specific GE animal (that is, the article as well as the GE animal containing it) and the purpose (i.e., intended use) of the article that is the subject of the NADA.
Step 2: Molecular Characterization of the Construct
This step of the process serves to describe the components and composition of the article. (21 CFR 514.1(b)(4).)
Step 3: Molecular Characterization of the GE Animal Lineage
This step continues the analysis of the rDNA construct in the resulting GE animal, as well as the production of the GE animal(s) intended to be used in commerce and any potential hazards that may be introduced into those animals as part of their production.
Step 4: Phenotypic Characterization of GE Animal
The previous steps of the review process have concentrated on establishing and characterizing the rDNA construct and its integration into the resulting GE animals. Information in this and the following steps helps establish whether the GE animal poses any risks to humans, risks to health of the GE animal, or risks to the environment.
 
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Step 5: Genotypic and Phenotypic Durability Assessment
As in Step 3, this step also addresses some additional components of the manufacturing requirements codified in 21 CFR 514.1(b)(5). It is intended to provide information to ensure that the rDNA construct in the GE animal resulting from the specific transformation event and defining (identifying) the GE animal being evaluated is durable — that there is a reasonable expectation that the rDNA construct is stably inherited, and the phenotype is consistent and predictable.
Step 6: The Food/Feed Safety and Environmental Safety Assessments
Food/Feed Safety
This portion of step 6 addresses the food and feed safety requirements in 21 CFR 514.1(b)(8). It focuses on the issue of whether food or feed derived from a GE animal is safe for humans or animals consuming edible products from the animals.
Environmental Safety
This portion of Step 6 addresses the environmental component of an NADA. 21 CFR 514.1(b)(14). GE animal applications have to be evaluated to determine whether such an application individually or cumulatively affects the environment (i.e., whether an extraordinary circumstance exists). 21 CFR 25.21. An Environmental Assessment that demonstrates the GE animal will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment leads to a finding of no significant impact (FONSI).
Step 7: Effectiveness/Claim Validation
The previous steps of the review process primarily address identity and safety issues. This last step of
pre-market
review addresses effectiveness, i.e., whether the claims have been validated for the characteristics that the GE animal is intended to exhibit. 21 CFR 514.1(b)(8).
CVM manages the regulation of our Tc Bovine technology, and we engage in scientific and regulatory communications with CVM focused on SAB’s animal plasma as the source of drug substance and product. CVM has regulatory oversight of animals with intentional genomic alterations (IGA) to produce drugs and biological products intended for human use.
This is a
one-time
approval process for a platform technology that may produce multiple targeted products in the future that would be regulated by another Center at FDA (i.e., CBER).
CVM has regulatory responsibility for veterinary and food safety issues associated with final products and the use of IGA animals. CVM and other FDA Centers work interactively to regulate IGA animals and their products. Regulations 21 CFR, Parts 58, 210, 211, 600, 680 and 9 CFR, Parts 1, 2, 3 are applicable to aspects of production or disposition of these IGA animals. CVM has Guidance 187 for Regulation of Intentionally Altered Genomic DNA in Animals for the regulatory oversight and approval process for IGA animals intended for production of biological products for human use, as well as CBER’s Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Therapeutic Products for Human Use Derived from Transgenic Animals (CBER 1995).
We have a longstanding relationship with CVM and have an Investigational New Animal Drug (INAD-011204) on file. Data and information on the safety and effectiveness of the genetic modifications of Tc Bovine are currently in the process of being submitted in a series of seven steps in accordance with Guidance 187 and under review by CVM. Once all steps are completed and reviewed by CVM, an administrative New Animal Drug Application (NADA) will be submitted for final review and approval. The current expectation is to have the NADA completed by the fourth quarter of 2022. We are also currently filing a new animal drug application (NADA) assessing the safety and effectiveness of the genetic modifications to the Tc Bovine animals with the CVM. This is a
one-time
process that includes future post approval responsibilities related to the durability of animal health and antibody response.
 
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U.S. Biological Products Development Process
In the United States, biologic products are licensed by the FDA for marketing under the Public Health Service Act, (PHS Act), and regulated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA). Both the FDCA and the PHS Act and their corresponding regulations govern, among other things, the testing, manufacturing, safety, purity, potency, efficacy, labeling, packaging, record keeping, storage, distribution, marketing, sales, import, export, reporting, advertising, and other promotional practices involving biologic products. FDA authorization is required prior to clinical testing of biologic products. FDA licensure also must be obtained prior to marketing of biologic products. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial financial resources and time.
Multiple polyclonal and monoclonal antibody products have been approved by the FDA to prevent or treat human diseases. Though the FDA regulates both monoclonals and polyclonal antibody products, Monoclonal antibodies are regulated by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). A monoclonal antibody is characterized by its molecular structure. This approach is similar to the process that CDER uses to regulate small molecule drugs. Because monoclonals are designed to bind to a single epitope, mutation is a significant concern due to selective pressure. Polyclonal antibodies derived from animals or humans are regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). CBER has currently approved over thirty polyclonal products for commercial sale. Human and animal-derived polyclonals are characterized by their in vitro potency and not by the molecular structure of each antibody in the product. U.S. Development Process.
Hybrid Process for a Biological Product Is Developed from Animals with Intentionally Altered Genomic DNA
The process required by the FDA before a biologic product may be marketed in the United States is generally well documented. In the case of a product that is developed from animals with intentionally altered genomic DNA as the donor material source, the process is more complex and involves both CVM, to oversee the intentionally altered genomic DNA in animals and the Office of Tissues and Advanced Therapies (OTAT) at FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) to oversee the polyclonal antibody products.
However, this is a onetime process for our Tc bovine and does not have to be repeated for subsequent products produced by the Tc bovine containing the same HAC.
Key aspects of the process include the following:
 
   
completion of nonclinical laboratory tests and animal studies according to Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs), and the Animal Welfare Act administered and enforced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture;
 
   
submission to CVM of an application for an INAD, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;
 
   
preparation of clinical trial material in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs);
 
   
submission to the FDA of an application for an Investigational New Drug Application (IND), which must become effective prior to beginning any human clinical trials;
 
   
approval of the protocol and related documentation by an institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee at each clinical site prior to initiation of each clinical trial;
 
   
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials according to Good Clinical Practices (GCPs), and any additional requirements for the protection of human research subjects and their health information to establish the safety, purity, potency, and efficacy of the proposed biologic product for its intended use;
 
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preparation of and submission to CVM of a NADA for marketing approval that includes sufficient evidence of establishing the safety, purity, and potency of the proposed altered genome in animals for its intended indication, including from results of nonclinical testing and clinical trials;
 
   
submission to the FDA of a BLA for marketing approval that includes substantive evidence of safety, purity, potency, and efficacy from results of nonclinical testing and clinical trials;
 
   
payment of user fees for FDA review of the NADA and BLA, unless a fee waiver applies;
 
   
satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection prior to a BLA approval of the manufacturing facility or facilities where the biologic product is produced to assess compliance with GMPs to assure that the facilities, methods, and controls are adequate to preserve the biologic’s identity, strength, quality and purity;
 
   
potential FDA audit of the nonclinical and clinical study sites that generated the data in support of the NADA and BLA;
 
   
potential FDA Advisory Committee meeting to elicit expert input on critical issues, including a vote by external committee members;
 
   
FDA review and approval of the NADA and BLA, which may be performed in parallel, but the NADA must be granted before a final decision can be made on the BLA, resulting in the licensure of the biological product for commercial marketing; and
 
   
compliance with any post-approval requirements, including the potential requirement to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS), and the potential requirement to conduct post-approval studies.
Before testing any biologic product candidate in humans, the product candidate enters the preclinical testing stage. Nonclinical tests include laboratory evaluations of product chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and formulation, as well as animal studies to assess the potential safety and activity of the product candidate. The conduct of the nonclinical tests must comply with federal regulations and requirements, including GLPs.
Prior to beginning the first clinical trial with a product candidate developed from an animal with altered genomic DNA in the United States, an INAD must be submitted to CVM and an IND must be submitted to CBER, and the FDA must allow the INAD and IND to proceed. An INAD and IND are exemptions from the FD&C Act that allow an unapproved product candidate to be shipped in interstate commerce for use in an investigational clinical trial and a request for FDA allowance that such investigational product may be administered to humans in connection with such trial. Such authorization must be secured prior to interstate shipment and administration. In support of a request for an INAD, applicants must submit to the FDA the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and plans for clinical trials, among other things. In support of a request for an IND, applicants must submit to the FDA a protocol for each clinical trial and any subsequent protocol amendments. In addition, the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and plans for clinical trials, among other things, must be submitted as part of an IND. An INAD and IND must become effective before human clinical trials may begin. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA, within the
30-day
time period, raises safety concerns or questions about the proposed clinical trial. In such a case, the IND may be placed on clinical hold or partial clinical hold. In this case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before clinical trials can begin. Submission of an IND therefore may or may not result in FDA allowance to begin a clinical trial.
Additionally, under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines), supervision of human gene transfer trials includes evaluation and assessment by an institutional biosafety committee (IBC), a local institutional committee that reviews and oversees research utilizing recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules at that institution. The IBC assesses the safety of the research and identifies any
 
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potential risk to public health or the environment, and such review may result in some delay before initiation of a clinical trial. While the NIH Guidelines are not mandatory unless the research in question is being conducted at or sponsored by institutions receiving NIH funding of recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecule research, many companies and other institutions not otherwise subject to the NIH Guidelines voluntarily follow them.
Clinical trials may involve the administration of the biologic product candidate to healthy volunteers or subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the study sponsor’s control. Clinical trials involving some products for certain diseases may begin with testing in patients with the disease. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety, including stopping rules that assure a clinical trial will be stopped if certain adverse events should occur. Each protocol and any amendments to the protocol must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. Clinical trials must be conducted and monitored in accordance with the FDA’s regulations comprising the GCP requirements, including the requirement that all research subjects or his or her legal representative provide informed consent. Further, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by an independent IRB at or servicing each institution at which the clinical trial will be conducted. IRBs are charged with protecting the welfare and rights of study participants and consider such items as whether the risks to individuals participating in clinical trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the form and content of the informed consent that must be signed by each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completed. Additionally, some trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee.
Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap or be combined:
 
   
Phase 1
. The biologic product is initially introduced into healthy human subjects and tested for safety. In the case of some biologic products for rare diseases, the initial human testing is often conducted in patients.
 
   
Phase 2
. The biologic product is evaluated in a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the biologic product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance, optimal dosage, and dosing schedule.
 
   
Phase 3
. Clinical trials are undertaken to further evaluate dosage, clinical efficacy, potency, and safety in an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. These clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit ratio of the biologic product and provide an adequate basis for product labeling. In biologics for rare diseases where patient populations are small and there is an urgent need for treatment, Phase 3 trials might not be required if an adequate risk/benefit can be demonstrated from the Phase 2 trial.
Post-approval clinical trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These clinical trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication, particularly for long-term safety
follow-up.
During all phases of clinical development, regulatory agencies require extensive monitoring and auditing of all clinical activities, clinical data, and clinical trial investigators. Annual progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted to the FDA. Written INAD and IND safety reports must be promptly submitted to the FDA and the investigators for serious and unexpected adverse events, any findings from other studies, tests in laboratory animals or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk for human subjects, or any clinically important increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. The sponsor must submit an IND safety report within 15 calendar days after the sponsor determines that the information qualifies for reporting. The sponsor also must notify the FDA of any unexpected fatal or life-threatening suspected adverse reaction within seven calendar days after the sponsor’s initial receipt
 
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of the information. Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA or the sponsor or its data safety monitoring board may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the biologic has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.
Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the physical characteristics of the biologic as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with GMP requirements. To help reduce the risk of the introduction of adventitious agents with the use of biologics, the PHS Act emphasizes the importance of manufacturing control for biologic products whose attributes cannot be precisely defined. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the sponsor must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality, potency, and purity of the final biological product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the biological product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.
There are also various laws and regulations regarding laboratory practices, the experimental use of animals and the use and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances in connection with the research. In each of these areas, the FDA and other regulatory authorities have broad regulatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to levy fines and civil penalties, suspend or delay issuance of approvals, seize or recall products and withdraw approvals.
Information about certain clinical trials must be submitted within specific timeframes to the NIH for public dissemination on its clinicaltrials.gov website. Disclosure of the results of such trials can be delayed in some cases for up to two years after the date of completion of the trial. Failure to timely register a covered clinical trial or to submit trial results as provided for in the law can give rise to civil monetary penalties and also prevent the
non-compliant
party from receiving future grant funds from the federal government. The NIH’s Final Rule on clinicaltrials.gov registration and reporting requirements became effective in 2017, and both NIH and FDA have recently begun enforcing those requirements against
non-compliant
clinical trial sponsors. Sponsors or distributors of investigational products for the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of one or more serious diseases or conditions must also have a publicly available policy on evaluating and responding to requests for expanded access requests.
U.S. Review and Approval Processes
Assuming successful completion of all required testing in accordance with all applicable regulatory requirements, the results of product development, nonclinical studies and clinical trials are submitted to the FDA as part of a NADA requesting approval of the altered genomic DNA in donor animals and a BLA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. The BLA must include results of product development, laboratory and animal studies, human studies, information on the manufacture and composition of the product, proposed labeling and other relevant information. The testing and approval processes require substantial time and effort, and there can be no assurance that the FDA will accept the BLA for filing and, even if filed, that any approval will be granted on a timely basis, if at all.
Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, as amended, or the PDUFA, each BLA may be accompanied by a significant user fee. Under federal law, the submission of most applications for approval of drug and biologic products is subject to an application user fee. The sponsor of an approved application is also subject to an annual program fee. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances, including a waiver of the application fee for the first application filed by a small business.
 
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Within 60 days following submission of a BLA or within 30 days following submission of a NADA, the FDA reviews the submitted application to determine if it is substantially complete before the FDA accepts it for filing. The FDA may refuse to file any application that it deems incomplete or not properly reviewable at the time of submission and may request additional information. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application also is subject to review to determine if it is substantially complete before the FDA accepts it for filing. In most cases, the submission of an application to FDA is subject to a substantial application user fee, although the fee may be waived under certain circumstances.
Under the performance goals and policies implemented by the FDA under the Animal Drug User Fee Act (ADUFA) for original NADAs, the FDA targets 180 days from the submission date in which to complete its initial review and act on a standard application. A NADA is considered incomplete if it would require additional data or information to enable the FDA to complete and reach a decision on issues presented in the NADA. Once the sponsor reactivates the NADA by addressing identified deficiencies, the FDA targets 135 to 180 days, depending in part on whether the deficiencies are identified as not substantial or substantial, respectively, to complete its review and respond to the applicant.
The sponsor of a new animal drug may voluntarily decide to utilize FDA’s “phased review” process to complete all technical sections required for approval of a new animal drug before submitting a NADA by submitting such information during the investigational phase of the animal drug development process. Utilizing this process, the sponsor may submit an administrative NADA, which is a NADA submitted after all technical sections necessary to fulfill the requirements for the approval of a new animal drug have been reviewed by the CVM and the CVM has issued a technical section complete letter for each of the required technical sections. The FDA targets 60 days from the filing date to complete its review and act on an administrative NADA.
Under the performance goals and policies implemented by the FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) for original BLAs, the FDA targets ten months from the filing date in which to complete its initial review of a standard application and respond to the applicant, and six months from the filing date for an application with priority review. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates, and the review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification.
Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an
in-depth
substantive review of the NADA and BLA. The FDA reviews the applications to determine, among other things, whether the proposed product is safe, pure and potent, for its intended use, and whether the product is being manufactured in accordance with cGMP to ensure its continued safety, purity and potency. The FDA may refer applications for novel biological products or biological products that present difficult or novel questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions. During the biological product approval process, the FDA also will determine whether a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) is necessary to assure the safe use of the biological product. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the BLA must submit a proposed REMS; the FDA will not approve the BLA without a REMS, if required.
Before approving a NADA or BLA, the FDA may inspect the facilities at which the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with GMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. Additionally, before approving a BLA, the FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical trial sites to assure that the clinical trials were conducted in compliance with IND study requirements and GCP requirements. To assure GMP and GCP compliance, an applicant must incur significant expenditure of time, money, and effort in the areas of training, record keeping, production and quality control.
After the FDA evaluates a NADA or BLA and conducts inspections of manufacturing facilities where the investigational product and/or its drug substance will be produced, the FDA may issue an approval letter or for an
 
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NADA and BLA respectively, an Incomplete Letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications. An Incomplete Letter or a Complete Response Letter will describe all of the deficiencies that the FDA has identified in the NADA or BLA. Where the FDA determines that the data supporting a BLA are inadequate to support approval, the FDA may issue a Complete Response Letter without first conducting required inspections, testing submitted product lots, and/or reviewing proposed labeling. In issuing an Incomplete Letter or Complete Response Letter, the FDA may recommend actions that the applicant might take to place the NADA or BLA in condition for approval, including requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA may delay or refuse approval of a NADA or a BLA if applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied or require additional testing or information.
If a product receives regulatory approval, the approval may be significantly limited to specific diseases and dosages or the indications for use may otherwise be limited, including to subpopulations of patients, which could restrict the commercial value of the product. Further, the FDA may require that certain contraindications, warnings precautions or interactions be included in the product labeling. The FDA also may condition approval on, among other things, changes to proposed labeling or the development of adequate controls and specifications. Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with
pre-
and post-marketing requirements is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace.
Further, for biological products, the FDA may impose restrictions and conditions on product distribution, prescribing, or dispensing in the form of a REMS, or otherwise limit the scope of any approval. The FDA may require one or more Phase 4 post-market studies and surveillance to further assess and monitor the biological product’s safety and effectiveness after commercialization and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-marketing studies.
Post-Approval Requirements
Maintaining substantial compliance with applicable federal, state, and local statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Rigorous and extensive FDA regulation of biological products continues after approval, particularly with respect to GMP. We will rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to produce clinical and commercial quantities of any products that we may commercialize. Manufacturers of our products are required to comply with applicable requirements in the GMP regulations, including quality control and quality assurance and maintenance of records and documentation.
Following approval, the manufacturing facilities are subject to periodic inspections by the FDA, and such inspections may result in an issuance of FDA Form 483 deficiency observations, an untitled letter, or a warning letter, which can lead to plant shutdown and other more serious penalties and fines. Prior to the institution of any manufacturing changes, a determination needs to be made whether FDA approval is required in advance. If not done in accordance with FDA expectations, the FDA may restrict supply and may take further enforcement action. Annual product reports are required to be submitted annually. Other post-approval requirements applicable to biological products include reporting of GMP deviations that may affect the identity, potency, purity and overall safety of a distributed product, record-keeping requirements, reporting of adverse events, reporting updated safety and efficacy information, and complying with electronic record and signature requirements.
After a BLA is approved, the product also may be subject to official lot release. As part of the manufacturing process, the manufacturer is required to perform certain tests on each lot of the product before it is released for distribution. If the product is subject to official release by the FDA, the manufacturer submits samples of each lot of product to the FDA together with a release protocol showing a summary of the history of manufacture of the lot and the results of all the manufacturer’s tests performed on the lot. The FDA also may perform certain confirmatory tests on lots of some products, such as viral vaccines, before releasing the lots for distribution by the manufacturer. In addition, the FDA may conduct laboratory research related to the regulatory standards on
 
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the safety, purity, potency, and effectiveness of biological products. Manufacturers of biological products must establish systems to record and evaluate adverse events reported by healthcare providers and patients and to assess product complaints. An increase in severity or new adverse events can result in labeling changes or product recalls. Defects in manufacturing of commercial products can result in product recalls.
We also must comply with the FDA’s advertising and promotion requirements, such as those related to
direct-to-consumer
advertising, the prohibition on promoting products for uses or inpatient populations that are not described in the product’s approved labeling (known as
“off-label
use”), industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities and promotional activities involving the internet. Discovery of previously unknown problems or the failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements may result in restrictions on the marketing of a product or withdrawal of the product from the market, as well as possible civil or criminal sanctions. Failure to comply with applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or after approval may subject an applicant or manufacturer to administrative or judicial civil or criminal sanctions and adverse publicity. FDA sanctions could include refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval or license revocation, clinical hold, warning or untitled letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, mandated corrective advertising or communications with doctors, debarment, restitution, disgorgement of profits or civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect.
Biological product manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved biological products are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with GMPs and other laws. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the areas of production and quality control to maintain GMP compliance. Discovery of problems with a product after approval may result in restrictions on a product, manufacturer, or holder of an approved BLA, including withdrawal of the product from the market. In addition, changes to the manufacturing process or facility generally require prior FDA approval before being implemented, and other types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications and additional labeling claims, are also subject to further FDA review and approval.
Additionally, rigorous and extensive FDA regulation of new animal drugs continues after approval. Owners of approved NADAs continue to have ongoing responsibilities under the FD&C Act, including registration and listing, recordkeeping, filing supplements, and periodic reporting.
Expedited Review and Approval Programs
The FDA has various programs, including fast track designation, priority review, accelerated approval and breakthrough therapy designation, that are intended to expedite or simplify the process for the development and FDA review of biological products that are intended for the treatment of serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs. The purpose of these programs is to provide important new biological products to patients earlier than under standard FDA review procedures. To be eligible for a fast-track designation, the FDA must determine, based on the request of a sponsor, that a biological product is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and demonstrates the potential to address an unmet medical need. The FDA will determine that a product will fill an unmet medical need if it will provide a therapy where none exists or provide a therapy that may be potentially superior to existing therapy based on efficacy or safety factors. In addition to other benefits, such as the ability to have greater interactions with the FDA, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a fast-track BLA before the application is complete, a process known as rolling review.
The FDA may give a priority review designation, such as a rare pediatric disease designation, to biological products that treat a serious condition and, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety or
 
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effectiveness. A priority review means that the goal for the FDA’s review of an application is six months, rather than the standard goal of ten months under current PDUFA guidelines. Most products that are eligible for fast-track designation may also be considered appropriate to receive a priority review. In addition, biological products studied for their safety and effectiveness in treating serious or life-threatening illnesses and that provide meaningful therapeutic benefit over existing treatments may receive accelerated approval and may be approved on the basis of adequate and well-controlled clinical trials establishing that the biological product has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require a sponsor of a biological product receiving accelerated approval to perform post-marketing studies to verify and describe the predicted effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical endpoints, and the biological product may be subject to accelerated withdrawal procedures. The FDA may withdraw approval of a drug or indication approved under accelerated approval if, for example, the confirmatory trial fails to verify the predicted clinical benefit of the product.
Moreover, under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act enacted in 2012, a sponsor can request designation of a product candidate as a “breakthrough therapy.” A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug or biological product that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs or biologics, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug or biological product may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. Breakthrough therapy designation comes with all the benefits of fast-track designation, which means that the sponsor may file sections of the BLA for review on a rolling basis if certain conditions are satisfied, including an agreement with the FDA on the proposed schedule for submission of portions of the application and the payment of applicable user fees before the FDA may initiate a review. Drug and biological products designated as breakthrough therapies are also eligible for accelerated approval. The FDA must take certain actions, such as holding timely meetings and providing advice, intended to expedite the development and review of an application for approval of a breakthrough therapy.
Even if a product qualifies for one or more of these programs, the FDA may later decide that the product no longer meets the conditions for qualification that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened. Furthermore, fast track designation, priority review, accelerated approval and breakthrough therapy designation do not change the standards for approval and may not ultimately expedite the development or approval process.
Emergency Use Authorizations
While, in most cases, a biologic must be approved by the FDA pursuant to a BLA before the product may be sold, when there is a public health emergency involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents, including infectious diseases like
COVID-19,
new therapeutics may be distributed pursuant to an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). Under an EUA, the FDA may authorize the emergency use of an unapproved medical product or an unapproved use of an approved product for certain emergency circumstances to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions when certain statutory criteria have been met, and after the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services has issued a declaration of emergency or threat justifying emergency use. EUAs are intended to address serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions caused by a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agent, including emerging infectious disease threats, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic. To receive an EUA, the product sponsor must demonstrate that the product “may be effective” in the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of an applicable disease or condition. Additionally, the FDA must determine that the product’s known and potential benefits outweigh the known and potential risks. Further there must be no adequate, approved, and available alternative product for the indication. Potential alternative products may be unavailable if there are insufficient supplies to meet the emergency need. The FDA may
 
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establish additional conditions on an EUA that are necessary to protect public health, including conditions related to information that must be disseminated to health care providers and patients, the monitoring and reporting of adverse events, and record keeping. Conditions may also relate to how a product is distributed and administered and how a product is advertised. Importantly, EUAs are not full marketing approvals. Rather, EUAs are only effective for the duration of the applicable EUA declaration. Full approval of the product under applicable standards established under the FDCA would be necessary to continue to distribute the product absent an EUA. EUAs may also be revised or revoked by FDA at any time.
Orphan Drug Designation
Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biologic intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or 200,000 or more individuals in the United States for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the United States a drug or biologic for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the United States for that drug or biologic. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting a BLA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. The orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review or approval process.
If a product that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusive approval (exclusivity), which means that the FDA may not approve any other applications, including a full BLA, to market the same biologic for the same indication for seven years, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity does not prevent FDA from approving a different drug or biologic for the same disease or condition, or the same drug or biologic for a different disease or condition. Among the other benefits of orphan drug designation are tax credits for certain research and a waiver of the BLA application fee.
A designated orphan drug may not receive orphan drug exclusivity if it is approved for a use that is broader than the indication for which it received orphan designation. In addition, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantities of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition.
Pediatric Trials
Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA), a BLA or supplement to a BLA must contain data to assess the safety and efficacy of the product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The FDCA requires that a sponsor who is planning to submit a marketing application for a drug or biologic product that includes a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration submit an initial Pediatric Study Plan, or PSP, within sixty days of an
end-of-Phase
2 meeting or as may be agreed between the sponsor and FDA. The initial PSP must include an outline of the pediatric study or studies that the sponsor plans to conduct, including study objectives and design, age groups, relevant endpoints and statistical approach, or a justification for not including such detailed information, and any request for a deferral of pediatric assessments or a full or partial waiver of the requirement to provide data from pediatric studies along with supporting information. The FDA and the sponsor must reach agreement on the PSP. A sponsor can submit amendments to an agreed-upon initial PSP at any time if changes to the pediatric plan need to be considered based on data collected from nonclinical studies, early phase clinical trials, and/or other clinical development programs. The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the applicant, grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or full or partial waivers from the pediatric data requirements.
 
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Marketing Exclusivity
Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of the FDA approval of the use of our product candidates, some of our United States patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit a patent restoration term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. However, patent term restoration cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The patent term restoration period is generally
one-half
the time between the effective date of an IND and the submission date of a BLA plus the time between the submission date of a BLA and the approval of that application. Only one patent applicable to an approved biological product is eligible for the extension and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. In addition, a patent can only be extended once and only for a single product. The U.S. PTO, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration.
The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, which was enacted as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (ACA), created an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are demonstrated to be “biosimilar” or “interchangeable” with an
FDA-licensed
reference biological product via an approved BLA. Biosimilarity to an approved reference product requires that there be no differences in conditions of use, route of administration, dosage form and strength and no clinically meaningful differences between the biological product and the reference product in terms of safety, purity, and potency. Biosimilarity is demonstrated in steps beginning with rigorous analytical studies or “fingerprinting,” in vitro studies, in vivo animal studies and generally at least one clinical study, absent a waiver from the Secretary of the HHS. The biosimilarity exercise tests the hypothesis that the investigational product and the reference product are the same. If at any point in the stepwise biosimilarity process a significant difference is observed, then the products are not biosimilar, and the development of a stand-alone BLA is necessary. In order to meet the higher hurdle of interchangeability, a sponsor must demonstrate that the biosimilar product can be expected to produce the same clinical result as the reference product, and for a product that is administered more than once, that the risk of switching between the reference product and biosimilar product is not greater than the risk of maintaining the patient on the reference product. Complexities associated with the larger, and often more complex, structures of biological products, as well as the process by which such products are manufactured, pose significant hurdles to implementation that are still being evaluated by the FDA. Under the BPCIA, a reference biologic is granted 12 years of exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the reference product.
The BPCIA is complex and continues to be interpreted and implemented by the FDA. In addition, government proposals have sought to reduce the
12-year
reference product exclusivity period. Other aspects of the BPCIA, some of which may impact the BPCIA exclusivity provisions, have also been the subject of recent litigation. As a result, the ultimate impact, implementation, and impact of the BPCIA is subject to significant uncertainty.
In addition to exclusivity under the BPCIA, a biological product can obtain pediatric market exclusivity in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity, if granted, adds six months to existing exclusivity periods, including some regulatory exclusivity periods tied to patent terms. This
six-month
exclusivity, which runs from the end of other exclusivity protection or patent term, may be granted based on the voluntary completion of a pediatric study in accordance with an
FDA-issued
“Written Request” for such a study.
Additional Regulation
In addition to the foregoing, state and federal laws regarding environmental protection and hazardous substances, including the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Resource Conservancy and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act, affect our business. These and other laws govern our use, handling and disposal of various biological, chemical and radioactive substances used in, and wastes generated by, our operations. If our operations result in contamination of the environment or expose individuals to hazardous substances, we could be
 
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liable for damages and governmental fines. We believe that we are in material compliance with applicable environmental laws and that continued compliance therewith will not have a material adverse effect on our business. We cannot predict, however, how changes in these laws may affect our future operations.
Regulation Outside of the United States
In addition to regulations in the United States, we are and will continue to be subject to a variety of regulations in other jurisdictions governing, among other things, clinical studies and any commercial sales and distribution of our products. Because biologically sourced raw materials are subject to unique contamination risks, their use may be restricted in some countries. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product, we must obtain the requisite approvals from regulatory authorities in foreign countries prior to the commencement of clinical studies or marketing of the product in those countries. Certain countries outside of the United States have a similar process that requires the submission of a clinical study application much like the IND prior to the commencement of human clinical studies.
In the European Union, for example, a clinical trial application (CTA), must be submitted to each country’s national health authority and an independent ethics committee, much like the FDA and the IRB, respectively. Once the CTA is approved in accordance with the applicable requirements, clinical study development may proceed. The requirements and process governing the conduct of clinical studies are to a significant extent harmonized at the European Union level but could vary from country to country. In all cases, the clinical studies are conducted in accordance with GCP and the applicable regulatory requirements and the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki. On January 31, 2022, the European Union’s (EU’s) Clinical Trial Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 536/2014) became effective. The Regulation harmonizes the assessment and supervision processes for clinical trials throughout the European Union via a Clinical Trials Information System, which contains a centralized European Union portal and database. We expect the Regulation to have significant material changes to clinical trials conducted or proposed to be conducted in the European Union.
To obtain regulatory approval of an investigational biological product under European Union regulatory systems, we must submit a marketing authorization application. The application used to file the BLA in the United States is similar to that required in the European Union, except for, among other things, country-specific document requirements. Innovative products that target an unmet medical need may be eligible for several expedited development and review programs in the European Union, such as The Priority Medicines (PRIME), scheme, which provides incentives similar to the breakthrough therapy designation in the United States. Such products are generally eligible for accelerated assessment and may also benefit from different types of fast-track approvals, such as a conditional marketing authorization or a marketing authorization under exceptional circumstances granted on the basis of less comprehensive clinical data than normally required (respectively in the likelihood that the sponsor will provide such data within an agreed timeframe or when comprehensive data cannot be obtained even after authorization).
The European Union also provides opportunities for market exclusivity. For example, in the European Union, upon receiving marketing authorization, new chemical entities generally receive eight years of data exclusivity and an additional two years of market exclusivity. If granted, data exclusivity prevents regulatory authorities in the European Union from referencing the innovator’s data to assess a generic or biosimilar application. During the additional
two-year
period of market exclusivity, a generic or biosimilar marketing authorization can be submitted, and the innovator’s data may be referenced, but no generic or biosimilar product can be marketed until the expiration of the market exclusivity. However, there is no guarantee that a product will be considered by the European Union’s regulatory authorities to be a new chemical entity, and products may not qualify for data exclusivity. A Pediatric Investigation Plan (PIP), in the European Union is aimed at ensuring that the necessary data are obtained to support the authorization of a medicine for children, through studies in children. All applications for marketing authorization for new medicines must include the results of studies as described in an agreed PIP, unless the medicine is exempt because of a deferral or waiver. This requirement also applies when a marketing-authorization holder wants to add a new indication, pharmaceutical form, or route of administration
 
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for a medicine that is already authorized and covered by intellectual property rights. Several rewards and incentives for the development of pediatric medicines for children are available in the European Union. Medicines authorized with the results of studies from a PIP included in the product information are eligible for an extension of their supplementary protection certificate by six months, even when the results of the studies are negative. Scientific advice and protocol assistance at the EMA are free of charge for questions relating to the development of pediatric medicines. Medicines developed specifically for children that are already authorized but are not protected by a patent or supplementary protection certificate are eligible for a
pediatric-use
marketing authorization, which if granted, provides 10 years of market protection.
Beginning on January 1, 2021, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), became the U.K.’s standalone medicines and medical devices regulator. As a result of the Northern Ireland protocol, different rules apply in Northern Ireland than in England, Wales and Scotland (together Great Britain). Northern Ireland continues to follow the European Union regulatory regime, but its national competent authority remains the MHRA. The MHRA has published a draft guidance on how various aspects of the U.K. regulatory regime for medicines operate in Great Britain and in Northern Ireland following the expiry of the Brexit transition period on December 31, 2020. The guidance includes clinical trials, marketing authorizations, importing, exporting and pharmacovigilance and is relevant to any business involved in the research, development or commercialization of medicines in the U.K. The new guidance has been given effect via the Human Medicines Regulations (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019, or the Exit Regulations. The U.K. regulatory regime largely mirrors that of the European Union.
For other countries outside of the European Union, such as countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America or Asia, the requirements governing the conduct of clinical studies, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country. In all cases, again, the clinical studies are conducted in accordance with GCP and the applicable regulatory requirements and the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki.
Authorization Procedures in the European Union
Medicines can be authorized in the European Union by using either the centralized authorization procedure or national authorization procedures.
 
   
Centralized Procedure
. Under the Centralized Procedure a
so-called
Community Marketing Authorization is issued by the European Commission, based on the opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the EMA. The Community Marketing Authorization is valid throughout the entire territory of the European Economic Area (EEA) (which includes the 28 Member States of the European Union plus Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland). The Centralized Procedure is mandatory for certain types of products, such as biotechnology medicinal products, orphan medicinal products, and medicinal products indicated for the treatment of AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, auto immune and viral diseases. The Centralized Procedure is optional for products containing a new active substance not yet authorized in the EEA, or for products that constitute a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation or which are in the interest of public health in the European Union.
 
   
For medicines that do not fall within these categories, an applicant has the option of submitting an application for a centralized marketing authorization to the EMA, as long as the medicine concerned is a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation, or if its authorization would be in the interest of public health.
 
   
National Authorization Procedures
. There are also two other possible routes to authorize medicinal products in several countries, which are available for investigational drug products that fall outside the scope of the centralized procedure:
 
   
Decentralized Procedure. Using the Decentralized Procedure, an applicant may apply for simultaneous authorization in more than one European Union country of medicinal products that have not yet been
 
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authorized in any European Union country and that do not fall within the mandatory scope of the centralized procedure. Under the Decentralized Procedure the applicant chooses one country as Reference Member State. The regulatory authority of the Reference Member State will then be in charge of leading the assessment of the marketing authorization application.
 
   
Mutual Recognition Procedure. In the Mutual Recognition Procedure, a medicine is first authorized in one European Union Member State, in accordance with the national procedures of that country. Following this, further marketing authorizations can be sought from other European Union countries in a procedure whereby the countries concerned agree to recognize the validity of the original, national marketing authorization.
In the European Union, upon receiving marketing authorization, new chemical entities generally receive eight years of data exclusivity and an additional two years of market exclusivity. If granted, data exclusivity prevents regulatory authorities in the European Union from referencing the innovator’s data to assess a generic application. During the additional
two-year
period of market exclusivity, a generic marketing authorization can be submitted, and the innovator’s data may be referenced, but no generic product can be marketed until the expiration of the market exclusivity. However, there is no guarantee that a product will be considered by the European Union’s regulatory authorities to be a new chemical entity, and products may not qualify for data exclusivity.
If we fail to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements, we may be subject to, among other things, fines, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions, and criminal prosecution.
Pharmaceutical coverage, pricing, and reimbursement
Significant uncertainty exits as to obtaining and maintaining coverage and adequate reimbursement for our product candidates, including
SAB-185
and
SAB-176,
and the extent to which patients will be willing to pay
out-of-pocket
for such products in the absence of reimbursement for all or part of the cost. In the United States and in other countries, patients who are provided medical treatment for their conditions generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their treatment. The availability of coverage and adequacy of reimbursement for our products by third-party payors, including government healthcare programs (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, TRICARE), managed care providers, private health insurers, health maintenance organizations and other organizations is essential for most patients to be able to afford medical services and pharmaceutical products such as our product candidates. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own coverage and reimbursement policies. However, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided are made on a payor-by-payor basis. One payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug product does not ensure that other payors will also provide coverage or adequate reimbursement. The principal decisions about reimbursement for new medicines are typically made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), an agency within HHS. CMS decides whether and to what extent products will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private payors tend to follow CMS to a substantial degree.
Third-party payors determine which products and procedures they will cover and establish reimbursement levels. Even if a third-party payor covers a particular product or procedure, the resulting reimbursement payment rates may not be adequate. Patients who are treated
in-office
for a medical condition generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with the procedure, including costs associated with products used during the procedure, and may be unwilling to undergo such procedures in the absence of such coverage and adequate reimbursement. Physicians may be unlikely to offer procedures for such treatment if they are not covered by insurance and may be unlikely to purchase and use our product candidates, if approved, for our stated indications unless coverage is provided, and reimbursement is adequate. In addition, for products administered under the supervision of a physician, obtaining coverage and adequate reimbursement may be particularly difficult because of the higher prices often associated with such drugs.
 
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Reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend upon several factors, including the third-party payor’s determination that a procedure is safe, effective, and medically necessary; appropriate for the specific patient; cost-effective; supported by peer-reviewed medical journals; included in clinical practice guidelines; and neither cosmetic, experimental nor investigational. Further, increasing efforts by third-party payors in the United States and abroad to cap or reduce healthcare costs may cause such organizations to limit both coverage and the level of reimbursement for newly approved products and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for our product candidates. In order to secure coverage and reimbursement for any product that might be approved for sale, we may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies in order to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of our products, in addition to the costs required to obtain FDA or comparable regulatory approvals. Additionally, we may also need to provide discounts to purchasers, private health plans or government healthcare programs. Our product candidates may nonetheless not be considered medically necessary or cost-effective. If third-party payors do not consider a product to be cost-effective compared to other available therapies, they may not cover the product after approval as a benefit under their plans or, if they do, the level of payment may not be sufficient to allow a company to sell its products at a profit. There may be pricing pressures from third-party payors in connection with the potential sale of any of our product candidates. Decreases in third-party reimbursement for any product or a decision by a third-party payor not to cover a product could reduce physician usage and patient demand for the product.
Foreign governments also have their own healthcare reimbursement systems, which vary significantly by country and region, and coverage and adequate reimbursement may not be available with respect to the treatments in which our product candidates, if approved, are used under any foreign reimbursement system.
Other Healthcare Laws and Regulations
Healthcare providers, physicians, and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any products for which we obtain marketing approval. Our business operations and any current or future arrangements with third-party payors, healthcare providers and physicians may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we develop, market, sell and distribute any drugs for which we obtain marketing approval. In the United States, these laws include, without limitation, state and federal anti-kickback, false claims, physician transparency, and patient data privacy and security laws and regulations, including but not limited to those described below.
 
   
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, paying, receiving or providing any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or certain rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid; a person or entity need not have actual knowledge of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value;
 
   
Federal false claims and false statement laws, including the federal civil False Claims Act, prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, claims for payment or approval that are false, fictitious or fraudulent; knowingly making, using, or causing to be made or used, a false statement or record material to a false or fraudulent claim or obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the federal government; or knowingly concealing or knowingly and improperly avoiding or decreasing an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Manufacturers can be held liable under the FCA even when they do not submit claims directly to government payors if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims. In addition, the government may assert that a claim that includes items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim
 
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for purposes of the civil False Claims Act. The FCA also permits a private individual acting as a “whistleblower” to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging violations of the FCA and to share in any monetary recovery. When an entity is determined to have violated the federal civil False Claims Act, the government may impose civil fines and penalties for each false claim, plus treble damages, and exclude the entity from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs;
 
   
The federal civil monetary penalties laws, which impose civil fines for, among other things, the offering or transfer or remuneration to a Medicare or state healthcare program beneficiary if the person knows or should know it is likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of a particular provider, practitioner, or supplier of services reimbursable by Medicare or a state health care program, unless an exception applies;
 
   
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit among other actions, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, or falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services;
 
   
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, impose, among other things, specified requirements on covered entities and their business associates relating to the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information including mandatory contractual terms and required implementation of technical safeguards of such information. HITECH also created new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates in some cases, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions;
 
   
The federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to CMS information related to payments or other “transfers of value” made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report such information regarding payments and transfers of value provided during the previous year to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, anesthesiologist assistants, certified nurse anesthetists and certified nurse-midwives;
 
   
Federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers; and
 
   
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, prohibits U.S. businesses and their representatives from offering to pay, paying, promising to pay, or authorizing the payment of money or anything of value to a foreign official to influence any act or decision of the foreign official in his or her official capacity or to secure any other improper advantage to obtain or retain business.
Many states have similar laws and regulations, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws, that may be broader in scope and may apply regardless of payor, in addition to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs. Additionally, we may be subject to state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the federal government’s and/or pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and state laws that require drug and biologics manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures, as well as state and
 
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foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA. Additionally, to the extent that any of our products, if approved, are sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws.
The scope and enforcement of each of these laws is uncertain and subject to rapid change in the current environment of healthcare reform, especially in light of the lack of applicable precedent and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal and state healthcare laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including without limitation, civil, criminal and/or administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, injunctions, private “qui tam” actions brought by individual whistleblowers in the name of the government, refusal to allow us to enter into government contracts, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens, diminished profits and future earnings and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.
Healthcare Reform
The United States and many foreign jurisdictions have enacted or proposed legislative and regulatory changes affecting the healthcare system. The United States government, state legislatures and foreign governments also have shown significant interest in implementing cost-containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid healthcare costs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs and biologics. In recent years, Congress has considered reductions in Medicare reimbursement levels for drugs and biologics administered by physicians. CMS also has authority to revise reimbursement rates and to implement coverage restrictions for some drugs and biologics. Cost reduction initiatives and changes in coverage implemented through legislation or regulation could decrease utilization of and reimbursement for any approved products. While Medicare regulations apply only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates. Therefore, any reduction in reimbursement that results from federal legislation or regulation may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.
The ACA substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers and significantly impacts the pharmaceutical industry. The ACA was a sweeping law intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against healthcare fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers and impose additional health policy reforms. Among other things, the ACA expanded manufacturers’ rebate liability under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program by increasing the minimum Medicaid rebate for both branded and generic drugs and biologics, expanded the 340B program, and revised the definition of average manufacturer price (AMP), which could increase the amount of Medicaid drug rebates manufacturers are required to pay to states. The legislation also extended Medicaid drug rebates, previously due only on
fee-for-service
Medicaid utilization, to include the utilization of Medicaid managed care organizations as well and created an alternative rebate formula for certain new formulations of certain existing products that is intended to increase the amount of rebates due on those drugs. On February 1, 2016, CMS issued final regulations to implement the changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate program under the ACA. These regulations became effective on April 1, 2016. Since that time, there have been significant efforts to modify or eliminate the ACA. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”), enacted on December 22, 2017, repealed the shared responsibility payment for individuals who fail to maintain minimum essential coverage under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“Code”), commonly referred to as the individual mandate.
Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since passage of the ACA. The Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend proposals in spending reductions to Congress. The Joint Select Committee did not achieve its targeted deficit reduction of an amount greater than $1.2 trillion for the fiscal years 2012 through 2021, triggering the legislation’s automatic
 
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reductions to several government programs. These reductions included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to healthcare providers of up to 2.0% per fiscal year, which went into effect in April 2013. Subsequent litigation extended the 2% reduction, on average, to 2030 unless additional congressional action is taken. However, pursuant to
COVID-19
relief legislation, the 2% Medicare sequester reductions have been suspended from May 1, 2020, through December 31, 2021. On January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act was signed into law, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.
Since enactment of the ACA, there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, and as a result certain sections of the ACA have not been fully implemented or have been effectively repealed through Executive Orders and/or executive agency actions. However, following several years of litigation in the federal courts, in June 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the ACA when it dismissed a legal challenge to the ACA’s constitutionality. Further legislative and regulatory changes under the ACA remain possible, although the new federal administration under President Biden has signaled that it plans to build on the ACA and expand the number of people who are eligible for health insurance subsidies under it. It is unknown what form any such changes or any law would take, and how or whether it may affect the biopharmaceutical industry as a whole or our business in the future. We expect that changes or additions to the ACA, the Medicare and Medicaid programs, such as changes allowing the federal government to directly negotiate drug prices, and changes stemming from other healthcare reform measures, especially with regard to healthcare access, financing or other legislation in individual states, could have a material adverse effect on the health care industry in the U.S.
The ACA requires pharmaceutical manufacturers of branded prescription drugs and biologics to pay a branded prescription drug fee to the federal government. Each individual pharmaceutical manufacturer pays a prorated share of the branded prescription drug fee, based on the dollar value of its branded prescription drug sales to certain federal programs identified in the law. Furthermore, the law requires manufacturers to provide a 50% discount off the negotiated price of prescriptions filled by beneficiaries in the Medicare Part D coverage gap, referred to as the “donut hole.” The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (BBA), among other things, amended the ACA, effective January 1, 2019, to close the coverage gap in most Medicare drug plans by increasing from 50 percent to 70 percent the
point-of-sale
discount that is owed by pharmaceutical manufacturers who participate in Medicare Part D.
The ACA also expanded the Public Health Service’s 340B drug pricing program. The 340B drug pricing program requires participating manufacturers to agree to charge statutorily defined covered entities no more than the 340B “ceiling price” for the manufacturer’s covered outpatient drugs. The ACA expanded the 340B program to include additional types of covered entities: certain free-standing cancer hospitals, critical access hospitals, rural referral centers and sole community hospitals, each as defined by the ACA. Because the 340B ceiling price is determined based on AMP and Medicaid drug rebate data, revisions to the Medicaid rebate formula and AMP definition could cause the required 340B discounts to increase. Payment methodologies may be subject to changes in healthcare legislation and regulatory initiatives as well. For example, CMS may develop new payment and delivery models, such as bundled payment models. Recently, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the way manufacturers set prices for their marketed products. Such scrutiny has resulted in several recent congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the cost of drugs under Medicare and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for pharmaceutical products.
At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.
 
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We expect that additional federal, state, and foreign healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in limited coverage and reimbursement and reduced demand for our products, once approved, or additional pricing pressures.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2021, we had 139 full-time employees, including 14 who hold advanced degrees. Of these employees, 115 were engaged in research and development activities, 6 were engaged in clinical activities and 18 were engaged in general and administrative activities. As of December 31, 2021, none of our employees are represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good. We emphasize several measures and objectives in managing its human capital assets, including, among others, (i) employee safety and wellness, (ii) talent acquisition and retention, (iii) employee engagement, development and training, (iv) diversity and inclusion and (v) compensation. These targeted ideals may include annual bonuses, stock-based compensation awards, a 401(k) plan with employee matching opportunities, healthcare, and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave, family care resources, and/or employee assistance programs. We also provide our employees with access to various innovative, flexible, and convenient health and wellness programs. We designed these programs to support employees’ physical and mental health by providing tools and resources to improve or maintain their health status and encourage engagement in healthy behaviors.
Properties
Research Center and Tc Cattle Facility
Our facilities include current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) operations where Drug Substance/Drug Product is manufactured in the clinical manufacturing facility located within the 60,000 square foot laboratory bay at the Sanford Research Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota encompassing a 5,400 square foot manufacturing area that includes the clinical manufacturing facility,
-20°C
plasma storage, and a controlled warehouse.
The Research Center lease is currently set to expire in August 2024.
Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle used for hyperimmunization, and plasma collection are housed at our animal facilities we refer to as the “Pharm”. The Pharm is a biosecure site dedicated to housing and rearing these animals. The physical surroundings are maintained in accordance with various governmental regulations. This site also includes surgical suite and plasma collection areas. Facilities are appropriate for cattle housing and give adequate protection from inclement weather conditions. Double barrier fencing (perimeter fencing and locked exterior gating) is designed to prevent Tc cattle from escaping or other unwanted animals from entering. Production animal pens consist of concrete feeding floors, water fountains and outdoor dirt lots. A biosecurity program is critical to the production of human pharmaceuticals from animals. The production herd is considered “closed” from a biosecurity perspective and inputs (feed, nutritional additives, medications, etc.) and outputs to the system are carefully monitored according to the appropriate regulations. A pest control program is instituted to control vermin. The biosecurity program is managed using a combination of procedural controls, facility design features (such as barriers, fencing and housing), controlled access and employee training into or out of the site. Tc Bovine plasma is collected from the animals in designated areas at the Pharm. The areas are cleaned and maintained per 21CFR Part 600.11. The Fenwal
Auto-C
plasmapheresis machine (human device) is used to collect plasma. Plasma is collected aseptically under standard sanitary conditions using a closed system and sterile bags to avoid microbial contamination. Following plasmapheresis, the plasma bioprocessing bags are labeled and shipped to SAB manufacturing facility or to contract manufacturers.
Our Tc Cattle Facility real property lease in Canton, South Dakota is currently set to expire in November 2038.
 
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Corporate Headquarters
The Company leases its corporate headquarters located at 2100 East 54th Street North, Sioux Falls, SD 57104. The lease covers approximately 45,602 square feet of office and laboratory space. The Company believes that its existing facilities and other available properties will be sufficient for its needs for the foreseeable future.
Legal Proceedings.
We are not currently a party to any material litigation, nor are we aware of any pending or threatened litigation against us that we believe would materially affect our business, operating results, financial condition, or cash flows. Participants in our industry face frequent claims and litigation, including securities litigation, claims regarding patent and other intellectual property rights, and other liability claims. As a result, we may be involved in various legal proceedings from time to time in the future.
Our Corporate History
SAB Sciences, Inc. (formerly SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc.) was incorporated in April 2014 as a Delaware corporation (“Legacy SAB”). We acquired all the intellectual property rights to Tc Bovine and the DiversitAb platform from Sanford Applied Biosciences, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sanford Health, to develop targeted human polyclonal antibodies to specific targets and advance clinical development and commercialization. The technology was originally contemplated in 1998 by professors at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Amherst College who recognized a significant gap in immunotherapy applications, namely, using the natural way our bodies fight disease through a human polyclonal antibody response. The technology founders established a biotech company called Hematech to develop the technology. This founding company was purchased and became a wholly owned subsidiary of Kirin in Tokyo, Japan in 2005. In 2007, the pharmaceutical division of Kirin became Kirin Pharma and in 2008 merged with Kyowa Hakko Kogyo to become Kyowa Hakko Kirin (KHK). The technology was developed through 2012 by Hematech as a wholly owned subsidiary of KHK. On December 31, 2012, KHK divested the technology and transferred ownership of all property, assets, and intellectual property of Hematech to Sanford Health and the technology was further developed by Sanford Applied Biosciences until we acquired it in its entirety in June 2014.
Since acquiring the technology in 2014, we have continued to develop intellectual property and specifically targeted human polyclonal antibodies to multiple disease indications, and we have conducted or collaborated in eight clinical trials (six of which are ongoing or in review), where we have demonstrated safety and efficacy in multiple Tc Bovine-derived human polyclonal antibody product candidates. We have developed our rapid response capabilities and completed proof of concept using private resources as well as over $200 million of funds awarded from the U.S. Government emerging disease and medical countermeasures programs. In October 2021 we completed our business combination with Big Cypress Acquisition Corp., pursuant to which we debuted as a publicly traded company (the “Business Combination”).
Big Cypress Acquisition Corp. (“BCYP”) was incorporated as a special purpose acquisition company in the State of Delaware on November 12, 2020. On January 14, 2021, BCYP completed its initial public offering. On October 22, 2021, BCYP consummated the Business Combination with Legacy SAB, which changed its name from SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc. to SAB Sciences, Inc. In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, BCYP changed its name to SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc. and SAB Sciences, Inc. became a subsidiary of SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 2100 East 54th Street North Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104, and our telephone number is
(605)-679-6980.
Our corporate website address is www.sabbiotherapeutics.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address herein is an inactive textual reference only.
 
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the section titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth in this prospectus contain forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors,” our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements.” Please also see the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements.”
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company advancing a new class of immunotherapies based on its human polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. We have applied advanced genetic engineering and antibody science to develop transchromosomic (Tc) bovine herds that produce fully human antibodies targeted to specific diseases, including infectious diseases such as
COVID-19
and influenza, immune system disorders including T1D and organ transplantation, and cancer. Our versatile and scalable DiversitAb platform is applicable to a wide range of human diseases, capable of producing specifically targeted, high-potency immunotherapies. The platform has been expanded and validated through funding awarded from U.S. government emerging disease and medical countermeasures programs, the most recent of which totals up to approximately $203.6 million. We are advancing clinical programs in two indications, and preclinical development in three indications. In addition, we are executing on two research collaborations with global pharmaceutical companies, including CSL Behring and an undisclosed collaboration.
We generated total revenue of $60.9 million and $55.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively (10.2% growth). Our revenue to date has been primarily derived from government grants, including for the development of a
COVID-19
therapeutic. Approximately $90.0 million in funding remains for our current government grants, with an additional $1.7 million remaining for our current government grants pending approval of extensions on the funding for two of the grants.
We plan to focus a substantial portion of our resources on continued research and development efforts towards deepening our technology and expertise with our platform and as well as indications in infectious disease, autoimmune, and oncology indications. As a result, we expect to continue to make significant investments in these areas for the foreseeable future. We incurred research and development expenses of $57.2 million and $27.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and general and administrative expenses of $17.1 million and $6.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We have also experienced significant growth in our workforce in recent periods, increasing from 86 employees as of December 31, 2020, to 139 employees as of December 31, 2021. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses, and we expect such expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, including as we:
 
   
invest in research and development activities to optimize and expand our DiversitAb platform;
 
   
develop new and advance preclinical and clinical progress of pipeline programs;
 
   
market to and secure partners to commercialize our products;
 
   
expand and enhance operations to deliver products, including investments in manufacturing;
 
   
acquire businesses or technologies to support the growth of our business;
 
   
continue to establish, protect and defend our intellectual property and patent portfolio;
 
   
operate as a public company.
 
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To date, we have primarily financed our operations from government agreements, including for the development of a
COVID-19
therapeutic and Rapid Response Antibody Program, and the issuance and sale of preferred stock.
Our net loss for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $17.1 million and our net income for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $20.1 million. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $29.1 million, cash and cash equivalents totaling $33.2 million, and $6.3 million in restricted cash.
Recent Developments
PPP Loan
In February 2021, we submitted a forgiveness application related to our Paycheck Protection Program (or PPP) loan (PPP Loan). In March 2021, the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) approved the forgiveness of the PPP Loan, plus accrued interest.
Business Combination
On October 22, 2021, we consummated the Business Combination pursuant to that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated June 21, 2021 (“Business Combination Agreement”), by and among Big Cypress Acquisition Corp. (“BCYP”), Big Cypress Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of BCYP, and SAB Biotherapeutics, Inc., which changed its name to SAB Sciences, Inc. and became our wholly-owned subsidiary in connection with the Business Combination (and which we refer to now as Legacy SAB). Upon completion of the Business Combination, and pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement, the stockholders of Legacy SAB exchanged their Legacy SAB shares for our shares of common stock, and options to purchase shares of Legacy SAB were converted into options to purchase our shares of common stock. Additionally, (i) we issued 10,491,937 shares of common stock to the former stockholders of Legacy SAB, which are being held in escrow and which will be released if certain conditions are met prior to October 22, 2026, and (ii) we granted 1,508,063 contingently issuable restricted stock units to the holders of Legacy SAB options, which restricted stock units will be settled in our shares of common stock if the same conditions are met prior to October 22, 2026. For more information, see Note 1 to the Company’s consolidated financial statements, Nature of Business.
Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations and Future Performance
We believe that our financial performance has been, and in the foreseeable future will continue to be, primarily driven by multiple factors as described below, each of which presents growth opportunities for our business. These factors also pose important challenges that we must successfully address in order to sustain our growth and improve our results of operations. Our ability to successfully address these challenges is subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors.”
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
Our revenue has historically been generated through grants from government and other
(non-government)
organizations. We currently have no commercially-approved products.